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  • PAGE LENGTHS, FOOTNOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES: The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length (NOT including the bibliography or endnote pages), number of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references.


18893. The Origins of the Dc-3 Aircraft.

This term paper describes the decision-making process in designing and building the revolutionary aircraft, the DC-3, by the Douglas Aircraft Company in the 1930s. The DC-3 was profitable for airlines in the US and around the world because it was easy to fly and maintain and had a reputation for speed, range, comfort and safety. Despite the aircraft’s phenomenal success, the company’s owner, Donald Douglas, saw the project as a gamble and was uncertain if it would pay off in the long run. TAGS: aviation history, DC-3, essay, Douglas Aircraft Company, innovation, technology, aircraft. APA Style. 10 pages, 38 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,377 words.

18771. The Mystery of Amelia Earhart’S Disappearance

This paper explores the major theories regarding the disappearance of aviator Amelia Earhart in 1937. It is argued that the most plausible explanation is found in the “crash and sink” theory (i.e., her plane ran out of fuel and she crashed in the Pacific Ocean). TAGS: aviation, women, Amelia Earhart disappearance, crash and sink. MLA Style. 13 pages, 47 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 3,155 words.

17198. The Crash of Twa Flight 800.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the midair explosion and crash of TWA Flight 800 on July 17, 1996. Drawing on information from the National Transportation Safety Board investigation and other reports, the paper describes the accident and the resulting damages and fatalities; analyzes the causes behind the accident; and reports on the remedies and changes that were put into place as a result of the accident and subsequent investigation. The first part of the paper dissects the accident and its causes. The next section looks at the lawsuits that arose as a result of the crash. Another section details the remedies and regulations that have been put into place in response to the crash and its likely causes. A concluding section discusses how the accident could have been avoided and briefly considers some of the unresolved issues related to the crash. Keywords: Flight 800 commercial aviation accidents investigation airplane crash lawsuits air safety prevention. 15 pages; 54 footnotes; 31 bibliographic sources. 4,882 words.

15630. Wind Power: Today's Most Promising Renewable Energy Source.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the current state and future potential of wind power as a source of energy throughout the world, with particular focus on the use of wind power in the United States. The investigation includes a review of the current state of the art in wind power technology, an overview of the size and scope of the current and potential wind power market, both globally and specifically in the U.S., and an examination of existing and potential barriers to wind power expansions. KEYWORDS: alternative energy wind power markets. 18 pages, 47 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.

15210. Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area.

Includes discussions of the geologic conditions that cause a risk in the area, the need for preparedness on both the household and community levels, and the problems in implementing retrofitting programs. Argues that, although much has been done to prepare the community for a future quake, still more needs to be done. 11 pages, 20 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.

13966. 20th Century North Atlantic Hurricanes.

This term paper presents an overview and analysis of hurricanes (focusing primarily on North Atlantic hurricanes impacting the United States) in the 20th century. The first section of the paper considers the definition, characteristics and origins of hurricanes. The classification system for hurricanes is described. Another section of the research paper examines the pattern of hurricanes during the past century, including an overview of the deadliest, costliest and most severe hurricanes and a consideration of the possible relationship between global warming and future hurricanes. The concluding essay then looks closely at the impact of hurricanes on people and property. KEYWORDS: deadly costly hurricanes united states 20th century global warming extreme weather term paper. APA Style. 30 pages, 72 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources. 8,144 words.

13859. Alloys.

Discusses the various types of alloys (including bronze, brass, steel and others), their advantages, and the processes of making them. Also covers the history of alloys from ancient times to the recent development of “super alloys.” 10 pages, 35 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

13479. Beaches of the East (Atlantic) and Southwest Florida Coasts.

This paper presents a survey of the ecology of barrier beaches along the U.S. Atlantic coast with a brief comparison to beaches found along the southwest Florida coast. Considers geology, current and tidal patterns, vegetation, and birds and other animals. A concluding section discusses human impact on the beaches in both areas. 12 pages, 49 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.

13084. Historical Development of the Laser.

In the style of James Burke (Connections), this paper traces the evolutionary developments that led to the creation of the first laser device in 1960. In this way, the paper shows that the laser came about as a result of earlier ideas being brought together and synthesized. 6 pages, 25 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.

12740. Marble.

Following a scientific description of this type of rock, the paper gives historical examples of its use in architecture and sculpture. The paper concludes by predicting that marble will continue to be used for these purposes in the future. 5 pages, 26 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.

12588. Coastal Erosion and Public Policy.

Considers the environmental and long-term economic impact of population settlement (permanent and vacation-development) along the barrier beaches of the Atlantic Coast. Concludes that the only long term solution to the problems posed by human settlement is not to build structures in zones of imminent erosion and to remove structures now at risk. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.

12289. Airport Bomb Detection Technologies.

Looks at the new explosive detection systems being developed; thermal neutron activation, computer imaging, and mass spectrometry technologies are described. Costs of the new CTX500 CAT system are noted. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.

11977. The Extinction of the Dinosaurs.

This investigation examines two contemporary theories which are widely held to be the most plausible explanations of the disappearance of the dinosaurs: 1) the "impact theory" which holds that a cataclysmic extraterrestrial event (collision of an asteroid or meteor with the earth) caused changes leading to the extinction of the dinosaurs; and 2) the "volcanism" theory which holds that volcanic activity (both the eruption of volcanoes and the sudden quiescence of eruptions) holds the key to mass extinctions. The concluding section offers an opinion about which theory best explains the extinction of the dinosaurs. 13 pages, 39 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.

11969. The Shaky Science of Earthquake Prediction.

Reviews the current state of the art of earthquake prediction. Draws examples of current inadequacies from the experiences of the 1994 Northridge and 1995 Kobe quakes. Outlines the existing methodology of earthquake prediction and its limitations. Makes recommendations for the future based on a scenario of more comprehensive earthquake preparedness. 14 pages, 34 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.

11960. Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents.

This paper presents an overview of hydrothermal vent systems, also know as mid-ocean vents. Following a brief history of their discovery, known locations, and presumed geological purpose, the analysis profiles the vent systems. Particular attention is devoted to the unusual nature of the biological communities in vent systems and the possible implications related to photosynthesis and the origins of life on earth. 11 pages, 35 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.

11944. The Role of the Oceans in a Global Waste Management Strategy.

This paper investigates the possibilities and limitations of the using the oceans within a comprehensive, integrated global waste management program. Includes an overview of the history and current status of regulation on ocean dumping as well as an assessment of the major current threats to the environmental stability of the ocean. The remainder of the paper suggests how the oceans might be utilized, first considering an overall model of the oceans within a waste management program and then examining the risks and possibilities of using the ocean as a waste disposal medium in two areas--sewage disposal and disposal of toxic (including nuclear) wastes. 10 pages, 36 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.

11708. Geographies of u.s and Australia.

Compares and contrasts the geographies of the U.S. and Australia. Discusses major geologic features, climate, soils, waterways, and plant life in each country. A concluding section summarizes the key similarities and differences in the geographies of the two countries. 8 pages, 11 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.

11440. Death Valley: A Geological Survey.

Basic overview of the geology of Death Valley: types of rocks, types of formations and what they reveal to geologists, theories of how the Valley was formed, faults, recent measurements, etc. 5 pages, 15 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.

10524. Proteins and Amino Acids.

Good general discussion of the importance of proteins and amino acids in biochemical processes. The scientific search for the nutritive element in food, for the genetic mechanisms for DNA's replication, and for new medical and health applications of proteins and amino acids is described. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.

10023. The Special and General Theories of Relativity.

Examines the major differences between Albert Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity and the later, more elaborate General Theory from a non-technical standpoint. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.

09533. The Boeing 747: Performance Characteristics.

Examines the performance characteristics of the world's most popular jumbo jet. Includes a discussion of the plane's history and its design innovations. 12 pages, 19 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.

09427. Helicopter Flight Simulators.

The special requirements of helicopter flight simulators are noted and state-of-the art innovations discussed. 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.

09246. Susan Haack on the Value of Scientific Inquiry.

This essay explores Susan Haack’s position in Defending Science – Within Reason. In this book, Haack argues that science is important in contemporary times, yet its value should not be overemphasized. The paper concludes by agreeing with Haack’s viewpoint and noting that scientists need to avoid being influenced by political and/or financial considerations. TAGS: science politics bias in research intrinsic value of scientific inquiry. APA Style. 8 pages, 20 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,886 words.

09236. Integral Passive Solar Water Heaters for the Homeowner.

Batch heaters are analyzed in terms of their technology, design and construction and cost-effectiveness. These systems are seen as offering a low-cost, easily-built alternative to conventional water heaters and more sophisticated types of solar heaters. 8 pages, 13 footnotes 4 bibliographic sources.

08914. Physical Geography as a Vehicle for Teaching Introductory Science.

Following a brief examination of the theoretical basis for using a "hands-on" approach to science education, the investigation explores various ways that physical geography can be used as a vehicle to teach introductory science. 11 pages, 10 footnotes in text, 14 bibliographic sources.

08603. Modular Housing.

A survey of modular construction techniques in residential building. The history of modular housing is briefly reviewed, and techniques used in Japan, Scandinavia, and America are reviewed. 24 pages, 26 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.

08468. Fiber Optics and the Local Network Manager.

Traces the evolution of fiber optics up to their current application in telecommunications. Implications for managers in terms of data availability, speed of communication, and cost reduction are analyzed. 9 pages, 13 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.

08315. Dirigible Airships.

Presents a brief history of the dirigible airship, with the focus on the transition from non-rigid to semi-rigid, to rigid types. The technical discussion is limited, although people and politics behind the airships are considered in some detail. 10 pages, 8 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.

08209. Telecommunications in Western Europe.

Following a brief review of the world market for computers and telecommunications equipment, this study examines the deficiencies and obstacles within the Western European telecommunications systems and then assesses Europe's prospect for the future within the world market. 12 pages, 15 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.

08160. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding by John Locke.

Critical interpretation of Chapter VIII and Locke's distinction between primary qualities, sensible qualities and "powers" in bodies. Presents Berkeley's criticism of Locke's theory of primary qualities. 5 pages, 3 footnotes in text, 1 bibliographic sources.

08116. Oil Exploration Techniques.

An excellent study of oil exploration and drilling techniques as they have developed in the twentieth century. The geological methods for discovering subsurface deposits are reviewed, and the rise of sophisticated technology for higher-priced oil is documented. 11 pages, 13 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.

08080. Oil Exploration.

A survey which examines the growth of oil exploration methods and technology from the turn of the century to the present. Includes informaton on siesmic, magnetic, surface geology, and aerial mapping technology, as well as secondary methods. 11 pages, 13 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.

07261. Desalinization of Seawater.

Good basic overview of the technology, economics and prospects for the human use of seawater, including both distillation and reverse osmosis techniques. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.

07260. A Geological Study of the Coast Ranges and Great Valley of California.

Good short summary of geological structures and history, including processes of plate tectonic that are a primary cause of geologic activity. The Central Valley is primarily sedimentary layers over basement rocks from the mountains on both sides. The Coast Ranges are a complex mixture of two types of basement rocks that have been subject to much folding and thrusting in the last 10 million years. Evidence of volcanic activity just 10,000 years ago in Sonoma highlights the need for greater understanding of geology. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. &abstract of paper.

06224. Pleistocene Fluctuations.

Detailed description and analysis of climate changes in the Pleistocene Era; heavy meteorological vocabulary. Summary of climate changes and theories; influence of volcanoes on climate; sea-level changes during the Ice Age. 10 pages, 9 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.

06091. The Journal of William H. Brewer: The California Geological Survey.

Basic book summary: the subject is the first survey of California Geology (1860) and the experiences of the surveying party. 5 pages, 24 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.

06078. Aerodynamics of Airplane Flaps.

Technical and mathematical study of how airplane flaps work in flight. Types of flaps commonly used, technical description of how these affect aerodynamic lift. 8 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.

06071. Photoelectric Conversion of Sunlight.

Solid scientific study of the chemistry of photogalvanic and photovoltaic devices for conversion of sunlight to electricity. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.

05763. Tectonic Features of the San Andreas Fault.

Detailed outline of the nature and geographical extent of the earth fault. Its history and characteristics are explained. 8p. 9f.

05722. Structural Fatigue in Aircraft Production and Operation.

Structural fatigue of components and assemblies is a major consideration in aircraft production and operation. This paper reviews basic types of metal fatigue and the procedures followed in assessing fatigue characteristics of aircraft during design and development. A model of flaw definition is cited which is appropriate to fatigue assessments of composite structural materials. As illustration of a damage-tolerance methodology for a specific aircraft, the Boeing 747, fatigue integrity program is described. This program integrates design analysis, materials selection, and fatigue testing in a systematic treatment of fatigue problems during aircraft evolution. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 2 Charts.

05564. Continental Drift.

Alfred Wegener's theory is used as a basis for a discussion of plate tectonics and an examination of San Francisco Bay area geology. The future of earthquakes in the San Andreas fault area and the likely effects are considered. 8 pages, 2 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.

05563. Salinity.

Salinity is defined as a measurement, as the dissolved elements that compose seawater, and as part of a model of earth, land, and sea interactions. The variability of seawater is examined in detail as a product of the major factors of evaporation, precipitation, and circulation, and is related to the characteristics of particular areas and bodies of water. The importance of the study of salinity variability to marine life is discussed. In conclusion, the potential effect on salinity variation of man's interference with the environment is mentioned. 10 pages, 13 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.

05559. Origin of the Oceans.

A historical introduction to theories of the origin of the universe is followed by an explanation of the role of the oceans and the spreading of the ocean floor in the make up of the earth. 10 pages, 6 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.

05557. Present and Potential Energy Saving Aspects of Laser Tecrnology.

A brief history of the laser and its increasing usage in defence and the prospect it holds out of cutting the costs of federal defence spending. The paper envisages a growth in low energy laser technology in such areas as telecommunications and medical diagnostics 8p. 7b. 7f.

05155. Plastics as Building Materials.

Discusses the technical properties of plastics which make them advantageous building materials. Presents them as space saving and energy saving materials. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.

04541. Technological and Legal Developments in Underwater Mining.

Very good, very thorough study of the minrral wealth under the sea, and how men propose to grab it. Good discussion of technological progress; very good discussion of legal aspects of international law of the sea. Though written in late 1976, may need updating because of recent political changes (200 mile limits announced by all major countries.) 17p., 14., 17b.

04395. Radioactivity Techniques for Age Analyses.

The origins and use of radioactive methods of dating are discussed, from the pioneering work of the Curies through Rutherford's work. The theory of thermo-luminescent dating as opposed to radiocarbon dating is examined, and complications of the method are related. 12 pages, 0 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.

04373. William Smith: His Life and Contributions to Science.

Good examination of the life and works of this English geologist of the late 18th and early 19th Cents., who discovered the principles of stratigraphy (measuring geological layers.) 6 pages, 2 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.

04365. Icing Problems in Aircraft.

The general problems of icing on airplane surfaces and engines, and the de-icing and anti-icing systems employed against them, are discussed. The development of these methods, from early mechanical techniques to thermal systems, is related. 7 pages, 0 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.

04100. New Visions in Science.

Recent attempts to overturn the basic premises of classical science are examined; theories of black holes in space, biogratitons and the new physics are contrasted with the offbeat theories of the likes of Wilhelm Reich and Uri Geller. 8 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.

03191. Saccharin: History and Preparation.

Good basic chemistry paper, written before controversy erupted over potential ban but could still serve as basis of full discussion; bulk of paper gives steps for synthesis of saccharin in technical chemical vocabulary. 7 pages, 0 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.

02352. Modern Physics and the Philosophy of Being.

In this paper, the implications of 20th Century physics for the theories of matter in philosophy are examined. The concepts of motion and particle theory from the Atomists to Newton are compared to the dualism of modern physics with its wave and particle theories. KEYWORDS: physics philosophy particle theory. 6 pages, 3 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.

02227. The San Andreas Fault.

A comprehensive discussion of the great geological fault line running from beneath the Pacific at Point Arena southward to Cajon pass in Southern California. The technical side of seismic movements and the record-keeping done on the fault-line's activities are considered, and the hopes for quake forecasting are assessed. 13 pages, 24 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.

01845. Regulation of Enzyme Activity as Related to Physical Chemistry.

Technical discussion with numerous equations of the action of enzymes in the body; Kinetics, enzyme catalysed reactions, enzyme inhibition mechanisms, competitive and non-competitive inhibition, and regulatory enzymes are covered in separate sub-headings. 8 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources. 8 graphs.

01583. Quantum Mechanics.

The criticism by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen of the quantum-mechanics theory explanation of physical reality is examined. Contains some basic methematics of wave functions and the replies of Bohr and Sharp to their objections. The great problem of physical measurement effecting the system is examined. - 10 pages, 4 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.

01513. Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Devices.

The development of the peaceful uses of atomic power is discussed, with a history of the first post-war programs and some recent controversial aspects of the question. Various ideas for nuclear submarines, nuclear batteries, demolition explosives and medical research are given attention, and other applications in agriculture and industry are suggested. 16 pages, 42 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.

01357. Research on Flourine.

Traces the discovery that flouridated water is related to less tooth decay, then focuses on research done in 60's indicating malnutrition and kidney disease patients may have bad side effects from flourine. Seems to be anti-flourine, but little mention of public controversy. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.

01248. The Changing Earth.

The changing formations of the earth's surface are discussed in this essay, discriminating between the tectonic or plate processes and the gradational processes which move materials over the earth's surface. 4 pages, 0 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.

01047. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.

Good solid discussion of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, including the developments leading to it, its physical and philosophical ramifications, and a brief biography of Heisenberg. 10 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.

53804A. World Energy Sources.

Coal, oil, gas and hydroelectric sources of energy are looked at, and the amount of resources and their probable consumption rates are considered. Nuclear power is viewed as an option to consumption of physical resources. Written before oil embargo. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.

53789. Suicide: An Ethical Question.

A first person study of the various viewpoints on the morality of suicide; religions and philosophical arguments against self-destruction are examined from the Greeks down to the current day. Suicide is seen as a right of the individual. 7p., 15., 11b.

53731. Lightweight Concrete.

Detailed, technical study of the components and uses of lightweight concrete. 15 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.

53681. Flourine.

The commercial production of flourine, and the uses of the chemical in the production of flourochenicals, is looked at in this study. The chemical bonding processes which take place in the formation of these compounds are outlined. 5 pages, 4 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.

53133. Ussr Aircraft Manufacturing Development, 1933 to the Present.

Very good history of Soviet aircraft, including models, characteristics, technological borrowings, problems, and gov. policies. Complete through about 1972. 16 pages, 22 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.

53131. Soil Mechanics: Foundations and Settlements.

The problems of structural loads and compressive straings which engineers face when designing and building are looked at. The possibilities of landslide, underground subsidence and bearing-capacity failure are all looked into, and the characteristics of soil make-up which must be taken into consideration are analyzed. The best means of creating even soil settlement are suggested. 12 pages, 25 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.

53012. Oil Shale as a Source of Energy.

This essay advocates the development of oil shale deposits as an alternate source of oil energy, and examines the conversion processes, expenses and environmental problems involved in the changeover. 8 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.

52820. Relativity Theory.

The notions of space and time in Relativity Theory are given a philosophical perspective, examining concepts of simultaneity and direction in the space-time continuum. 6 pages, 4 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.

52401. Solar Power for Heating.

Good overview of solar power for home space heating, with brief comparisons to atomic and types of energy. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.

51574. Continental Drift.

The evolution of the continental drift theory is described, with details on the possible forms of the proto-continents, Laurasia and Godwanna, in the northern and southern hemispheres respectively. The structure and origin of the tectonic plates, and their relationship to the Pacific Coast seismological region, is also considered. 10 pages, 4 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.

51322. Theoretical Archeology.

This research paper provides a very complete study of the objectives of archeology, and its development as a science. The paper covers archeology's relation to logical positivism in l9th century, rise of specialization in the field, functionalism in recent times, good discussion of the scientific method in archeology. Also covers guidelines for field work and dating techniques. KEYWORDS: theory archeology archeological methods. 27 pages, 31 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.

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