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20G. GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY


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18975. Maslow’S Humanistic Theory of Personality.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the humanistic theory of personality as developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. The analysis considers concepts related to motivation, self-actualization, and hierarchy of needs. Concludes with a personal perspective that favorably apprises the theory, considering its application for self-improvement and self-actualization. TAGS: Maslow, Rogers, personality theory, humanistic theory, self-actualization, hierarchy of needs, ideal self, organismic experiencing. APA Style. 7 pages, 12 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,701 words.
  $49
 

18973. Personality Tests: Strengths and Weakness.

This paper examines the strengths and weaknesses in three commonly used personality assessments: the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the Rorschach inkblot test, and a self-administered test that has been published in Psychology Today as well as other popular magazines. The tests are evaluated in terms of their validity, comprehensiveness, applicability and cultural utility. All three tests are found to have limited reliability and major weaknesses. Concludes that the Myers-Brigg Type Indicator is the strongest of the three tests evaluated, and that the Psychology Today is the weakest among the three. TAGS: personality tests, psychological assessment, reliability, validity, Rorschach, Myers-Briggs. APA Style. 9 pages, 14 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,022 words.
  $63
 

18747. John Dewey and Psychology.

This paper discusses John Dewey’s contributions to the field of psychology. Dewey’s work is associated with functionalism, which sees the mind as non-material, seeks to understand the mind as a whole, and is concerned with how and why the mind operates. It is noted that Dewey disagreed with the behaviorist perspective. He urged the use of scientific methods in the study of the mind and was a key figure in the development of social psychology. KEYWORDS: psychology mind Dewey functionalism behaviorism. APA Style. 9 pages, 27 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 2,164 words.
  $63
 

18689. A Comparison of Four Psychological Theories.

This paper compares the theories of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and William James, with an emphasis on what each theorist says about the psychological functions and the causes of those functions. It is argued that, in different ways, each theorist made important contributions to the overall understanding of psychology. KEYWORDS: psychology theory psychological functions libido repression dreams individual psychology stream of consciousness ego id Freud Jung Adler James. APA Style. 8 pages, 22 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,981 words.
  $56
 

18106. Cognitive Views of Learning.

This paper describes the cognitive view of learning and how it differs from the behaviorist view. Emphasis is placed on the information processing model of memory, which sees the mind as being similar to a computer. It is noted that there are educational implications in the fact that human memory has limited capacity. Some techniques that can be used to improve memory are discussed, including chunking and mnemonics using imagery and loci (or "pegs"). KEYWORDS: education learning cognition memory. APA Style. 6 pages, 12 footnotes in text, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

18079. The Keymath-Revised Special Education Assessment Test.

This paper provides a critical evaluation of KeyMath-Revised, a test for assessing the math skills of special education students. The paper discusses how the test is used, its content areas, additional materials, and issues of scoring, reliability, and validity. It is concluded that the test is generally useful, despite some minor flaws. KEYWORDS: tests special education math. APA Style. 5 pages, 16 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,271 words.
  $35
 

18077. A Personal Approach to School Counseling.

Written in the first person, this paper describes an eclectic approach to school counseling, which is based largely on the theoretical views of William Glasser (the founder of Choice Theory and Reality Therapy), as well as on elements from the work of Alfred Adler and Abraham Maslow. The first section of the paper focuses on philosophical beliefs about human nature; the second section discusses theoretical viewpoints; the third section considers some ways that the personal theoretical orientation can be applied to K-12 settings. KEYWORDS: school counseling theories william glasser choice theory reality therapy alfred adler abraham maslow. APA Style. 11 pages, 23 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,659 words.
  $77
 

18076. Intelligence Tests.

This paper compares the Stanford-Binet Test and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, two norm-referenced tests that are commonly used for measuring intelligence. The paper includes a discussion of why the current editions of the test (SB5 and WISC-IV) were changed from their previous editions, the differing philosophical orientations of the two tests, and the concerns that have been raised about possible cultural bias. It is concluded that both tests have high levels of reliability and validity, but the SB5 is better overall for intelligence assessment. KEYWORDS: standardized intelligence tests stanford-binet wechsler reliability validity . APA Style. 9 pages, 19 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,277 words.
  $63
 

18075. Diagnostic Mathematics Inventory/Mathematics System (Dmi/Ms).

This paper evaluates this criterion-referenced test for assessing specific math abilities in young students with mild disabilities. The test is criticized for its limited coverage of content areas and for its manual not including reliability or validity data. Despite these flaws, it is argued that the test is useful for identifying learning areas in need of instructional emphasis. KEYWORDS: DMI/MS special education testing math. APA Style. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,261 words.
  $35
 

17746. Senior Adults vs. Adolescents: Patterns of Social, Cognitive, and Physical Development in Two Age Groups.

This paper considers the differences between adolescents (16-19 years of age) and senior adults (over the age of 60) as they pertain to the way in which each group navigates the stages of social, cognitive, and physical development. By examining questions pertaining to the groups’ social interactions, self-identity, and personal aspirations, it becomes apparent that while adolescents and senior adults experience common emotions, the two groups ultimately undergo different experiences, as the pressures and tensions on them are unique. KEYWORDS: developmental psychology life span adolescence senior elderly. Strict APA Style. 12 pages, 41 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,990 words.
  $84
 

17745. The Psychological Effects of Spouse Abuse: Contextual Factors in the Psychological Suffering of Victims.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the psychological effects of spouse abuse, considering in particular the contextual factors which may serve to exacerbate, mitigate or protect against psychological harm. A review of recent studies provides support for the working hypotheses that the chronic nature and severity of abuse is associated with more extensive psychological impact and that a variety of contextual factors influence victims’ psychological responses to spouse abuse. Type of abuse, history of abuse, social support, socioeconomic factors, gender, and coping skills are among the factors influencing the psychological impact of spouse abuse. KEYWORDS: spouse abuse interpersonal partner violence battered women psychological effects depression ptsd trauma behavior. 12 pages, 45 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 3,473 words.
  $84
 

17728. Effective Listening Strategies in Interpersonal Communication.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of effective listening strategies, a vital element of interpersonal communication. “Listening” is defined and distinguished from mere “hearing” and key concepts in effective listening such as “dialogue”, “empathizing” and the use of open-ended questions are defined and discussed. Following a discussion of theories of listening (particularly those related to psychologist Carl Rogers), the paper discusses the elements of effective listening, providing specific examples. A concluding section takes a personal viewpoint on how an individual might improve his or her own listening style. KEYWORDS: interpersonal communications listening carl rogers. APA Style. 8 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,890 words.
  $56
 

17638. Even the Rat Was White by Robert v. Guthrie.

This paper presents a review and analysis of Gurthrie’s book about racial assumptions in the history of American psychology and regarding Black Americans’ participation in the discipline of psychology. The reviewer finds that Guthrie’s book is well-written and covers a subject that is usually neglected in psychology textbooks and histories of the discipline; thus, Guthrie has made a valuable contribution to the literature with this text on racism and racist assumptions in psychology. KEYWORDS: psychology racism racist assumptions psychological theories black psychologists. MLA Style. 5 pages, 1 bibliographic source. 1,238 words.
  $35
 

17616. Gender Development.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of gender development in childhood. The paper discusses the biological influences on gender development and compares the major social and cognitive theories on gender development. Theories considered included the psychoanalytic perspective, social role theory, cognitive development theory, gender schema theory, and the social cognitive theory. Concludes that the social cognitive theory provides the best and the most thorough explanation of how gender role and identity arise in childhood. KEYWORDS: gender development gender identity gender role child development. MLA Style. 10 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,374 words.
  $70
 

17608. The Meaning of Success.

This brief essay considers the true meaning of success beyond traditional definitions in terms of career achievement and financial attainment. Argues that it is important to be aware that success is not found in what you acquire or own but in your general feelings of happiness, satisfaction, and fulfillment. KEYWORDS: success life accomplishment. MLA Style. 3 pages, 5 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 862 words.
  $21
 

17564. Ethical Questions for School Psychology/Counseling Practice.

Drawing on the APA’s (2002) “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct,” this paper considers ethical aspects of five questions/situations related to the practice of school psychology and/or school counseling: 1) a school psychologist struggles requirements for parental consent for student testing; 2) a college-level counselor considers the possible causes for an ESL student’s academic performance problems; 3) a school psychologist discusses testing with the mother of a fourth grader having difficulty with mathematics; 4) the supervisor of a school psychology intern proposes a shortcut to expedite recordkeeping related to testing; and 5) a school counselor with no formal training in autism evaluation has been told to act as the school’s “resident expert” on the disorder. KEYWORDS: school counseling school psychology school psychologists school counselors ethics ethical principals psychologists. APA Style. 11 pages, 12 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,689 words.
  $77
 

17418. Learned Helplessness: Problem, Theory & Intervention.

This paper examines the phenomenon of learned helplessness, an orientation in the learner leading to both motivational and cognitive disturbances (and related deficits in performance). The academic literature on learned helplessness in both children and adults is reviewed. Drawing primarily on Seligman’s reformulated theory of learned helplessness, but also considering Dweck’s self-theories, the paper describes the problem of learned helplessness and examines its underlying mechanisms. Cognitive intervention strategies to address the problem consistent with Seligman’s and Dweck’s models are presented and discussed. A plan to evaluate the impact of these strategies, and a discussion of why learning may have failed to occur is also presented. KEYWORDS: learning theory motivation failure identity attributional retraining social cognitive theory. 20 pages, 134 footnotes, 46 bibliographic references. 4,698 words.
  $133
 

17381. The Concept of Emotional Burden in Diabetes & Other Chronic Illnesses.

This research paper presents a concept analysis of “emotional burden” in chronic illness with specific reference to diabetes. This paper presents an analysis of the concept of emotional burden, including an examination of the meaning and scope of the term, the major factors in exacerbating and alleviating emotional burden, and consideration of models to address emotional burden in chronic illness in general as diabetes in particular. The concluding part of the paper focuses on emotional burden in diabetes. APA Style. 12 pages, 56 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 2,974 words.
TAGS: diabetes emotional burden chronic illness psychological impact medical illness, nursing case management, diabetic patients, psychology.

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  $84
 

17345. Suicide: Pastoral Counseling Responses.

This paper discusses suicide as a pastoral issue and provides an overview of what one needs to know to handle suicide cases in the course of pastoral counseling. The paper includes information on assessing the risk of suicide, intervention techniques in the crisis and post-crisis phases, helping the family of friends of attempted and completed suicides, and the impact that suicide has on counselors. KEYWORDS: pastoral counseling suicide suicidality suicide prevention counselors church pastors. 11 pages, 31 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 2,625 words.
  $77
 

17331. Critique of “an Anthropologist on Mars” by Oliver Sacks.

This paper provides a selected review of the prominent neurologist’s 1995 book containing seven “paradoxical” cases of neurological disease. According to Sacks, these cases are paradoxical because they demonstrate creative adaptations to the suffering caused by brain damage. This paper closely examines two of the cases in the book (“A Surgeon’s Life” and “The Case of the Colorblind Painter”) and based on this examination, it is argued that Sacks’ bias as a neurologist causes him to occasionally lose objectivity. Sacks errs by always placing himself at the center of the cases - as an observer, an actor, and an interpreter as well as by explaining everything in neurophysiological terms. KEYWORDS: Oliver Sacks neurology neurological disorders book review. 7 pages, 17 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,743 words.
  $49
 

17328. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences as a Classroom Management Tool.

This paper discusses how Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences can be used in managing student behavior in the classroom. Following a brief description and overview of the theory of multiple intelligences, the paper describes various ways that the theory can be used in classroom management, including the management of student behavior, both in controlling problem behavior and stimulating student learning. KEYWORDS: multiple intelligences student behavior classroom management. 6 pages, 17 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,432 words.
  $42
 

17325. An Interview on Motivation.

This paper discusses the findings from a 50 minute interview regarding a particular person’s motivation. The subject for the interview was a forty-three-year old man named Danny. The questions for the interview were designed to uncover (without being too intrusive) the physiological and psychological factors that influence Danny’s sense of motivation. The analysis includes a summary of the subject’s current motivational state and recommendations on life changes. The interview questions and an edited summary of the subject’s responses are included. KEYWORDS: individual motivation motivational theory interview. 10 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 2,674 words.
  $70
 

17296. Experiential Family Therapy.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the experiential approach to family therapy which holds that the lives of both individuals and families are enhanced through the ability to share emotional experiences. Defines the experiential approach; profiles the leading figures in this method, including Carl Whitaker and Virginia Satir; outlines the theoretical foundations; discusses the concept of family dysfunction; describes the goals and objectives of therapy; and describes therapeutic techniques. Concludes with an evaluation of this type of family therapy. KEYWORDS: family therapy experiential approach Satir Whitaker humanism existentialism. 12 pages, 31 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 2,790 words.
  $84
 

17234. Integrated Theories of Criminology.

This paper discusses integrated theories of criminology. Integrated crime theories seek to provide a more thorough perspective on how and why crime occurs than individual theories can provide on their own. The advantages and disadvantages of the integrated approach are considered. An example of an integrated theory is found in the work of Elliott, et al., which combines strain theory, social control theory, and learning theory. Keywords: integrated crime theory Merton Hirschi. 5 pages; 11 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,150 words.
  $35
 

17206. The Impact of Divorce on Children.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of parents’ divorce on children. The paper first provides a summary overview of the literature examining the general impact of parental divorce on children. Next, the investigation looks at some of the factors which seem to mitigate or exacerbate the impact of parental divorce on children’s well-being. Finally, the literature on post-divorce intervention programs (aimed at helping children of divorce) is briefly considered. Keywords: divorce psychological impact children broken homes parents. 12 pages; 39 footnotes; 26 bibliographic sources. 3,386 words.
  $84
 

17183. Aids and the Dying Process: Patient Perspective.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the process of dying from HIV/AIDS or AIDS-related complications. The analytical approach is personal and philosophical, rather than clinical. After considering the general scope and nature of HIV/AIDS as a cause of death, the analysis looks closely at what it is like to die from this disease in the U.S. today. The experience of dying from AIDS is described. How dying of AIDS differs from and is similar to dying from cancer or other terminal illnesses is examined. Included in this analysis is consideration of the social stigma attached to AIDS and the influence of this stigma on the person dying from the disease in terms of his or her relations with healthcare providers, family members, friends, and the larger society. Also considered are the elements that comprise a ‘good death’ in AIDS. Keywords: AIDS HIV death dying cancer terminal illness patients thanatology. 15 pages; 35 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 4,346 words.
  $105
 

17177. Research Methods in Psychology.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of research methods in psychology. Following an overview of the scientific method and its application within psychological research, the processes of creating and testing hypotheses, evaluating a study, and creating a reliable and valid experiment are considered. The analysis also considers ethical issues in research, including the appropriate and inappropriate use of risk and deception. The statistical analysis of results and the application of descriptive and inferential statistics are also discussed. The concluding section provides a summary analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of various methods of research in psychology. Keywords: psychology research methodology experiments design. 21 pages; 42 footnotes; 11 bibliographic sources. 5,293 words.
  $133
 

17154. Characteristics of the Professional Counselor.

This paper considers the essential characteristics of the professional counselor. Proceeding from the assumption that the characteristics of the ideal counselor must match the roles, responsibilities and identity of the counseling profession, the analysis begins with a definition and overview of the counseling profession. Following this, the analysis considers the characteristics of the professional counselor, with specific reference to communication skills, empathy, cognitive abilities, professional knowledge base, ethics, and a social-cultural understanding. 12 pages; 39 footnotes; 21 bibliographic sources. 3,678 words.
  $84
 

17131. Are There Leaders and Followers in Fish Shoals?

This paper explores and discusses the question of whether there are leaders and followers in fish shoals. After reviewing the basic characteristics of fish shoals and schooling behavior and summarizing the traditional view that fish shoals or schools are self-organized, leaderless systems, the paper consider the possibility of leaders and leadership roles (and by implication, followers) within organized fish aggregations. It is argued that there are indeed, leaders and followers within some fish shoals, although it is also argued that ‘leaders’ and ‘leadership’ must be differentially defined for fish shoals versus the paradigm of leadership evident in the human military organization or the wild wolf pack. Specifically, within the fish shoal, leadership occurs in the relative absence of organizational hierarchy and outside of the framework of leadership as social dominance. 15 pages; 39 footnotes; 17 bibliographic sources. 3,743 words.
  $105
 

15995. Integration of Services in the Addiction-Treatment Field.

This paper concerns the movement towards providing integrated criminal justice, mental health, social and substance abuse services within the addiction treatment field. The advantages, disadvantages and overall effectiveness of the integrated approach to substance abuse treatment. Keywords: substance abuse treatment integration. 5 pages; 10 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,341 words.
  $35
 

15994. An Addiction Treatment Program Based on the "Controlled Drinking" Model.

This paper evaluates the “controlled drinking” approach to the treatment of alcoholism and addiction. The controlled drinking approach is discussed as consistent with a type of harm reduction model of addiction treatment and in contrast to the disease and total abstinence approach to addiction treatment. Research evidence to support the controlled drinking approach is presented, along with the elements to consider in developing a program based on the model. Keywords: addiction alcoholism treatment models. 5 pages, 17 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

15992. Evaluation Techniques in a Substance Abuse Treatment Agency.

This paper is concerned with the types of measures that should be used to determine if a substance abuse treatment facility is being effective in achieving desired outcomes. Topics include: the determination of outcome goals, appropriate measures, issues to be considered, and the importance of qualitative as well as quantitative data. Keywords: addiction treatment evaluation outcomes. 5 pages; 16 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

15989. Group Techniques for the Treatment of Substance Abuse.

Studies have shown that support group meetings can be helpful in the treatment of substance abuse. This papers provides recommendations for creating a successful group, and also describes some of the things that might cause a cause a group to be ineffective. Keywords: addiction group treatment. 5 pages; 19 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

15988. The Harm Reduction Model of Addiction Treatment.

In this paper, the harm reduction model of addiction treatment is presented as an alternative to the medical “disease” model and the criminal justice “law-and-order” model, both of which are described as relatively ineffective for the treatment of substance abuse problems. The paper includes information on various types of harm reduction efforts, and notes that there is research evidence supporting the model’s effectiveness. Keywords: drug abuse treatment models harm reduction. 5 pages; 19 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

15987. Relapse in Addiction Treatment.

Drawing on a cognitive behavioral model of addiction treatment, this paper discusses the factors that can cause patient relapse and the ways it can be prevented. In addition, the elements of a typical cognitive behavioral relapse prevention program are described. Keywords: drug abuse treatment relapse addiction. 5 pages; 14 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,409 words.
  $35
 

15986. Initial Assessment at an Outpatient Substance Abuse Clinic.

This paper considers the factors which need to be taken into account during patient processing and assessment of referral needs at an outpatient substance abuse clinic. Includes information on interviewing, taking client histories, and tests of psychological and medical health status. Keywords: drug abuse treatment clinical assessment. 6 pages; 17 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,333 words.
  $42
 

15948. Psychology of Dreams.

This paper discusses three major theories of dreams (psychodynamic, physiological, and cognitive). Each of the three dream theories is described and compared. The concluding section suggests that the true meaning of dreams might be found in a combination of these three theories. 12 pages; 38 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 2,577 words.
  $84
 

15940. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs & Employee Motivation.

This paper describes Maslow’s theory and the ways that it can be used to motivate workers in different circumstances. Although the theory has its limitations, it is a useful tool for managers. Some suggestions (make by other theorists) for making efficient use of Maslow’s hierarchy are included. 10 pages; 33 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources. 2,746 words.
  $70
 

15803. Dolphin Communication.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of dolphin communication patterns and systems. The analysis explores the channels of communication used by dolphins, considers the normal environmental limitations on communication related to life in an aquatic versus terrestrial environment, discusses the cognitive and sensory basis of dolphin communication systems, and examines the evidence that dolphins have language. While the focus of the analysis is on intraspecies dolphin communication, the possibility of dolphin-human communication is necessarily also considered in that assessments of dolphin language potential often involve investigations of human-dolphin symbolic interaction. KEYWORDS: animal communications dolphin language intraspecies interspecies communication. 12 pages, 42 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 3,740 words.
  $84
 

15629. A Critical Review of the Methodology in Lawes' (1999) Marriage: An Analysis of Discourse.

This paper presents a critical review of the methodology and related issues in Lawes' (1999) social psychological investigation of a group of British "Generation Xer's" construction of marriage as reported in her article, Marriage: An Analysis of Discourse. The methodology used in this study is a fairly new approach called "discourse analysis." The paper first provides an overview of this methodology, and then a step-by-step critique of Lawes' study, examining her research questions, sampling, data collection, data organization, interpretation and analysis, and conclusions. 15 pages, 44 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $105
 

15607. Police Stress.

This paper discusses the causes of police stress and notes that stress reactions can either have a positive or negative impact on psychology and health. "Mismanaged stress" results in high suicide rates and other problems for police officers. With this view in mind, the paper includes a discussion of coping strategies that can be used to alleviate the stress reactions. 11 pages, 33 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

15577. The Power of Meditation.

Using a variety of sources, including websites, books and articles, this paper argues that meditation has real power. For example, it increases relaxation, stimulates alertness, promotes spiritual growth, and has healing benefits. Western as well as Eastern traditions are discussed, and findings from empirical studies are cited to support the argument. 10 pages, 30 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

15450. The Psychology of Disability.

This paper looks at disability from a psycho-social context, examining in particular the psychology of people with disabilities. Drawing on established theory and recent research, the essay examines the components of individual disability and the interaction between the individual's psychology of disability and social and environmental mediators. The term paper includes a general overview of disability in America; a review of the literature on the psychology of disability, considering the "stages of acceptance" through which the disabled person is said to progress and considering factors involved in the disabled person's adjustment to disability; and a review of the major theories which seek to explain the psychology of people with disability. Another section presents a rebuttal to the common notions of the psychological difficulties of disability. KEYWORDS: disability disabled persons psychological factors term paper. APA Style. 22 pages, 80 footnotes, 35 bibliographic references.
  $133
 

14092. Theory of Multiple Intelligences.

A review of literature which describes the theory of Howard Gardner and its implications for education. Considers both the pro and con views on the theory, and concludes that it is beneficial to educators despite its imperfections. 11 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographical references.
  $77
 

14089. Death of a Spouse.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the impact of the death of a spouse on the surviving marriage partner. Defines and explicates models of the grief process and grief reactions in spouses, considering cognitive, affective, behavioral and physiological manifestations. Discusses the variables influencing survivor grief resolution, focusing on variable related to the death circumstances (traumatic versus non-traumatic), personal factors (age, gender, personality, illness), and the quality of marital relationship. KEYWORDS: death spouse grief bereavement survivors widows. APA Style. 17 pages, 43 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 4,394 words.
  $119
 

14003. Psychological Effects of Chronic Disorders.

This essay provides a summary and critical evaluation of the research on the psychological effects of chronic disorders. The essay begins with an examination of the research with looks at the association between chronic disorders and psychological symptoms from a broad perspective, considering the direction of the relationship, and presenting models of the chronic disorder/psychological effects linkage. Following this, the essay presents a critical evaluation of several recent research studies on the psychological/psychiatric effects of chronic disorders. A summary section presents a synopsis of the major findings as presented in the essay. KEYWORDS: chronic illness psychological effects research paper. APA Style. 16 pages, 39 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 4,215 words.
  $112
 

13995. The Motivation of Students.

The pros and cons of the traditional approach based on reinforcement theory are discussed. In addition, various modern approaches are described, including the use of attention-getting techniques, modeling enthusiasm, cooperative learning, challenging students with high expectations, and using computers to increase motivation. KEYWORDS: motivation education motivating students theory. 18 pages, 58 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.
  $126
 

13947. The Relationship Between Jung's Personality Types and Astrology.

The paper discusses some of the evidence that supports astrology, and then examines Jung's interest in the topic and the ways his personality types correlate with astrological signs and symbols. The conclusion urges the reader to not use either system in a superficial or stereotypical way. 11 pages, 33 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.
  $77
 

13851. John Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice.

According to Holland, there are six personality types, each of which is best matched to a particular work environment. This paper discusses his theory and its implications for counselors in helping people to attain suitable careers for themselves. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.
  $42
 

13844. Race and Intelligence.

Traces the history and current controversies surrounding the purported racially-based differences in intelligence and aptitude. Describes the historical development of the concept of race and the evolution of Social Darwinism and its dogma on racially-based differences. Considers current theories about race and intelligence as developed by Jensen and others. Concludes that race cannot be linked to intelligence tests because race is not a valid scientific, genetic or biological concept. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

13725. Position Paper: Erich Fromm's to Have or to Be.

Argues that while Fromm's broad criticism of modern society is useful in some respects, his social program's overwhelming dependence on the economic and psychological theories of Marx, Freud and a long line of religious philosophers ultimately renders it little more than a utopian fantasy. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliography.
  $35
 

13706. Gender and Empathy.

A survey of recent research on sex differences in empathy and related capacities for emotional responsiveness. The primary source is a 1983 meta-analysis empirical studies on the topic. The evidence on sex differences in empathy from this meta-analysis is supplemented with the results of two more recent studies. Concludes that gender difference in empathic capacity is probably less significant behaviorally than sex-role expectations in determining empathic responsiveness. Also concludes that while sex role expectations defined empathic response in test settings, there is probably no significant relationship between empathy and the capacity for moral reasoning and moral behavior. 9 pages, 18 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

13693. Death and Dying.

A personalized discussion of death and dying by a writer who discusses the links between Kubler-Ross's "stages of dying" and the grief process experienced by a teenage survivor coping with the terminal illness of a parent. Outlines contemporary theories of death and dying and considers the role and importance of funeral and other post-death rituals for survivors. 10 pages, 7 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.
  $70
 

13666. Physical Attractiveness and Social Persuasion.

Reviews the literature on physical attractiveness, persuasion and life success and then presents a study which tests the hypothesis that an attractive person exercises a significantly higher degree of social persuasiveness in a non-romantic setting than an unattractive person. Experimental design, procedures, variables and experimental results are reported. Data analysis confirmed the hypothesis. 8 pages, 10 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

13601. Adolescence and the Search for Identity.

This paper presents a brief investigation on the adolescent stage of development with a focus on the process of identity formation. The methodology employed is a case analysis based on face-to-face interview with adolescent volunteer subjects. A review of the theoretical literature provides support for analysis of the interview data. 9p. 13b.
  $63
 

13558. Crowding and Psychological Stress.

Drawing on the environmental psychology literature, this report presents an overview and analysis of the effects of crowding on the human psychological stress and behavior. Includes a review of the early theories of crowding and behavior as formulated by Hall (proxemics), Stokols ("spatial density") and others. Following a review of animal research, the study reviews the empirical and survey literature focusing on human subjects in prison, clinical and field settings. A concluding section examines recent studies of the effects of crowding on people in heavily populated developing nations. 25 pages, 48 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

13489. Color Vision.

This paper covers the importance of color to human life, theories on how the eye perceives colors, the causes of color blindness, the effects of color on body and behavior, and areas where further research is needed. 12 pages, 29 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

13378. Dream Theories.

Discusses early examples of dream interpretation, as well as the views of noted theorists such as Freud, Jung, Perls, Hobson, Crick and LaBerge, among others. Also considers areas where further research is needed. 11 pages, 37 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

13363. Animal Play.

An overview and analysis of the phenomenon of “play” observed in documented across a broad spectrum of birds and mammals. Defines animal play and the controversy surrounding the construct, describes the various categories of play, considers variations in play behavior across the life span and between sexes, and examines theories of the function and/or purpose of animal play. Keywords: animal play behavior term paper. 15 pages, 45 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.
  $105
 

13226. The Nature-Nurture Controversy and Human Intelligence.

This report presents an overview and critical analysis of the nature-nurture controversy over human intelligence. Following an overview of the historical background to this controversy and the initial explorations of human intelligence, the basic positions and evidence supporting each side of the debate are considered. Concludes that human intelligence has a strong genetic basis, yet is nevertheless susceptible to environmental influences, particularly at an early age. 15 pages, 46 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.
  $105
 

13218. Extrasensory Perception (Esp).

Following a brief definition of terms, this report reviews the recent literature which explores the existence, underlying processes, and potential applications of ESP. The review of the literature on ESP research is divided into two sections, one which looks at some of the processes underlying ESP and the other which focuses rigorously on the question of whether or not ESP is possible. A concluding section summarizes the findings, which do confirm the legitimacy of the ESP phenomenon, and make suggestions for future research aimed at understanding its underlying processes and putting ESP to useful application. 13 pages, 39 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.
  $91
 

13182. The Psychology of Sound.

Comprehensive study of the psychology of sound, reviewing the basic physiology of hearing and the structural causes of auditory effects. Phonological blocking, masking and loudness contour effects are examined. The contribution of noise to stress, and of music to learning and relaxation, are described. Noise reduction and its relationship to the psychological effects of sounds is briefly noted. 32 pages, 43 footnotes, 27 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

13165. Seasonal Affective Disorder (Sad).

The Influence of Physical Environment on Human Psychology. This paper explores the physical environment-human psychology relationship through an examination of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Following a review of the literature on the relationship between seasonality and psychiatric disorders which helped to spur the initial clinical research on the problem of SAD, the main part of the paper provides a thorough overview of SAD, including its clinical features and major symptoms, the natural course of the illness, its distinction from other affective disorders, its epidemiology, and a discussion of treatment options with special attention to light therapy. The final section looks at the main theories of etiology in SAD, considering the role of photoperiod, melatonin, and circadian rhythms and the validity of each theory. 34 pages, 107 footnotes, 33 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

13137. Explaining Racial Differences in Sexual Behavior.

Following a brief review of the significant research findings on racial differences in sexual behavior, this paper provides a review and analysis of the scholarly literature which attempts to explain these differences. Considers arguments that race explains all differences, arguments that social, environmental and/or familial factors explain the divergences, and more recent arguments of multi-factor causality. 12 pages, 54 footnotes, 33 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

12729. The Cycle of Addiction.

This paper identifies and discusses the key elements that perpetuate the cycle of addiction. These elements can be broken down into four broad categories: the social environment (friends, family, community), genetics, biological or physical aspects, and psychological aspects. Argues that psychological aspects may be the most important in both perpetuating and finally breaking the ties of addiction. KEYWORDS: addiction causes contributing factors psychological factors drug alcohol abuse treatment. APA Style. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references. 1,979 words.
  $42
 

12439. "Teachers' Expectancies: Determinants of Pupils' Iq Gains?"

Critical review and analysis of a scholarly research article (published in Psychological Reports) presenting the findings of an experiment investigating the effect of teachers expectancies on gains in students' intelligence quotients. Analyzes the article in terms of its adherence to the principles of critical thinking and scientific reasoning. 8 pages, 5 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $56
 

12370. Cognitive Dissonance, Stereotypes and Group Roles.

Brief discussion and analysis of three concepts from social psychology. Defines cognitive dissonance and discusses its role in aggression; defines stereotypes and considers whether or not they are evil; and discusses the concept of roles in the standing group and their influence on interactions in the acting group. 9 pages, 5 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

12264. Self-Realization in the Writings of Taylor, Gendlin, and Morrison.

Compares the perspectives of three writers on the subject: Charles Taylor (The Ethics of Authenticity). Eugene Gendlin (Focusing), and Toni Morrison (Nobel Prize acceptance speech). All of these authors agree that self-realization involves getting in touch with one's self, but that it also involves being concerned with the needs of other people. 20 pages, 65 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

12239. Dual Relationships in Psychology.

This paper explores the ethical and legal issues surrounding dual relationships in psychotherapy. Following a brief description of the APA's position on dual relationships, the analysis examines the ethical and legal issues inherent within three categories of dual relationships: 1) sexual dual relationships between therapists and clients; 2) non-erotic (e.g. social, business) dual relationships between therapists and clients; and 3) dual relationships in psychology supervision and training. The concluding section summarizes the main legal and ethical problems in dual relationships and makes recommendations for addressing these problems. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

12179. Legal and Ethical Issues in Mandatory Child Abuse Reporting Requirements for Psychologists.

The paper examines the legal and ethical issues and dilemmas in mandatory child abuse reporting requirements from the perspective of the mental health professional. Provides an overview of the legal and ethical issues and analyzes reasons why therapists often fail to comply with reporting laws. Offers recommendations on how psychologists and psychiatrists might resolve some of the ethical and legal dilemmas presented by these laws. 11 pages, 25 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

11925. Evolution and Human Behavior.

A brief overview of evolutionary psychology, one of the most rapidly developing and controversial subdisciplines within the field of evolutionary biology. Following an overview of the history of its development, and a discussion of the major assumptions of the discipline, the analysis briefly considers major areas of application. 6 pages, 26 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

11911. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.

This paper examines the purpose of the test, its reliability and validity, the population for which the test is designed, and its area of interest. An overview of critical assessments of the test is taken from the professional literature. 5 pages, 15 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

11630. Memory and Aging.

Review of the work of Hasher and Zacks differentiating automatic and effortful memory encoding, and how this is affected by aging. Written in technical vocabulary. 7 pages, 23 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

11568. The Psychology of Music.

Serious, large-vocabulary investigation of why people respond to music, concentrating on the three theories of music as pattern, the psychoacoustical properties of music, and music as grammar and language, finding most agreement with the latter. 11 pages, 27 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

11474. Maternal Death and Piaget's Theory of Childhood Development.

Short review of Piaget's theory of childhood development focusing on the effects of a maternal death or separation in the first half of the sensorimotor phase of development (first year). 5 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

11280. Psychological Functioning and Aging.

This paper critically examines the proposition that psychological functioning does not deteriorate with age. Reviews theories on aging and cognitive changes and analyzes current research on the topic. Includes the results of six interviews. Concludes that cognitive decline of some type ("slowing" of intellectual processes and memory deficits) is inevitable even in "successful aging." Includes analysis on factors known to be associated with more and less rapid cognitive declines among the elderly. 16 pages (+ interviews), 45 footnotes in text, 20 bibliographic sources.
  $112
 

11260. The Effects of Single-Parent Families on the Psychological Well-Being of Children.

Traces rise in single-parent families in the U.S., with focus on effects of such family settings upon psychological well-being of children. Argues that such families are more likely to be the locus of developmental and social difficulties than two-parent families. 9 pages, 25 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

11110. Underhill's Practical Mysticism and Fromm's the Art of Loving .

This paper compares and contrasts these two books on different topics and from different times. Finds love and mysticism similarly defined. The method recommended to develop them is also similar. Concludes authors' also have like ideas on the impact of love and mysticism in society. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

10615. Philosophy of Memory.

A first-person discussion of the role of memory in human consciousness and everyday life. Broad philosophical schools of idealism and realism are contrasted, and personal experiences such as deja vu phenomena are noted. 12 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

10256. Polygraph Examination and the Psychology of Lie Detection.

A brief study of the history and development of polygraph machines, describing their reliability, applications in law enforcement, and limits as legal evidence. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

10196. A Review and Evaluation of "If You Meet the Buddha on the Road, Kill Him" by Sheldon B. Kopp.

Report and evaluation of Kopp's book on the use of psychotherapy as a means of directing and taking charge of one's own life and assuming responsibility for one's destiny. Report concludes that while book offers useful suggestions and depicts therapeutic process well and in detail, it is too personalized an accounting to be of value to the individual needing therapeutic assistance from a professional. 10 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $70
 

10195. The Disintegration of the American Family and Teen Suicide.

Report composed of three sections. The first section describes the disintegration of the American family unit; second discusses rising incidence of teen suicide; and third relates family changes to increase in suicide. 10 pages, 20 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

10087. Psychological Effects of Aids.

An overview of the psychological effects of AIDS. Antecedents, including the disease itself, anticipation of disease outcome, and the predisposing behavioral/social factors are discussed and analyzed. The scope of the problem is considered, with a focus on the two most prevalent psychological effects -- adjustment reaction (anxiety) and major depression with complicating suicidal ideation. 5 pages, 20 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

10017. Filial Responsibility.

The sociological perspective on filial obligation to one's parents is examined. An overview of research literature from the last two decades is presented, and recent trends and developments are analyzed. The emergence of a new generation of middle-aged daughters caring for elderly parents is noted, and prospects for a new system of financial and social guarantees supporting the care of the aged are assessed. 20 pages, 31 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

09997. Death and Dying: Biological, Medical and Psychological Aspects.

Presents a brief overview of death and dying from its biological, medical and psychological aspects. 7 pages, 12 footnotes in text, 17 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

09840. Developing Procedures for Stress Reduction in a Stressed Teacher Population.

Systematically builds a model of stress reduction for a group of community college teachers exhibiting the symptoms of job-related stress. Discusses cognitive-behavioral, communications, and exercise-therapy strategies to reduce the symptoms of exhaustion, depersonalization and low self-esteem. 8 pages, 28 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

09802. The Social Psychology of Participation in the Unification Church: The Brainwashing Controversy.

Thoughtful analysis of recruitment practices in the Unification Church (Moonies) which offers a deprivation-ideological and social reactivity model as an alternative to the brainwashing theory. Includes background analysis of the Unification Church's history, ideology and practices. 17 pages, 47 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.
  $119
 

09768. Autogenic Training (At).

An overview of the principles, theories, objectives and applications of this self-help, self-healing practice. Considers AT within the general rubric of holistic medicine and self-care. Presents a training model for teaching AT to a group of 3-5 people over a period of 4 weeks. 8 pages, 9 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

09612. The Myths by Which I Live.

A personal view on the essayist's political (citing also Joseph Campbell and Mircea Eliade), social and religious myths, showing how these modern myths correspond to exactly the same kind of sacred stories and belief systems as the great myths of the ancient civilizations. 6 pages, 6 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

09524. Extramarital Sex: A Symbol, Not a Cause, of Marital Instability.

Reviews the literature on the characteristics, occurrence, and outcomes of marital sexual infidelity and concludes that extramarital sex can be better viewed as an effect, not a cause, of marital instability. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

09515. Collective Behavior and Individual Aggression.

This term paper examines alternative psychological views on how group authority challenges or acquiesces to individual aggressive and anti-social behavior. 12 pages, 28 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 2,873 words.
  $84
 

09514. Iq Testing and Mental Measurement.

Reviews the standards of validity for IQ tests in order to see what circumstances would be necessary for them to be meaningful. Also examines the validity of the social and methodological criticisms of IQ testing. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

09513. Visual Art Processing.

The cognitive functions used in the perception and understanding of works of art are analyzed in this paper; prior knowledge, presentation time and task demands are seen as tools for seeing and interpreting art. 9 pages, 15 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

09384. Your Inner Child of the Past by w.h. Missildine.

Favorable review and analysis of this 1960s self-help book written for individuals interested in understanding the influences of the past. 5p 6f. 1b.
  $35
 

09125. Teen Suicide.

Investigates the phenomenon of suicide among American adolescents. Reviews the basic epidemiology and demographic features of teen suicide victims for the past two decades. Examines specific social/familial causes and correlations of teen suicide. 10 pages, 31 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

09115. "Think and Grow Rich" by Napoleon Hill.

A highly critical and amusing review of one of the oldest and best-selling "how to get rich" books. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, l bibliographic source.
  $35
 

09070. The Use of Visualization and Other Motivation Enhancing Techniques in Athletics.

Explores the use of "mental practice" such as visualization to motivate and improve performance athletes. Theory, components, and specific examples are presented. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

09009. Daydreaming.

Explores the phnomenon of daydreaming, including its motivations and manifestations. Agrees with the cognitive-affective model of daydreaming which argues that daydreams are a crucial component of the human information processing system. Considers the benefits and possible negative side effects of daydreaming. 12 pages, 18 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

08991. An Exercise in Personal Problem Solving.

This paper provides a brief case study of a student having difficulty with one of his classes. The analysis goes through the process of solving the student's problem. The analysis includes problem identification, assessment of four potential alternative solutions, an action plan, and a post-action evaluation of plan efficacy. KEYWORDS: problem solving process case studies education. 7 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources. 1,876 words.
  $56
 

08990. Suicide in the Developed World.

This investigation provides an overview and analysis of suicide in Europe, North America, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and Israel, looking at various factors which have been statistically correlated to the rate of suicide in developed countries. Durkheim's theory of suicide is discussed and the various types of suicide explicated. The influence of underlying culture, religiosity, family structure, and economic structure are examined. KEYWORDS: suicide durkheim anomie suicide rates causes types of suicide. 15 pages, 36 footnotes, 26 bibliographic sources. 3,791 words.
  $105
 
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