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20F. DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY


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18974. ERIK ERIKSON AND THE EIGHT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of Erikson’s theory of the eight stages of human development, running from infancy to old age. Each of the eight stages is described and discussed, and then a personal view of Erik’s eight stages is presented from the viewpoint of a middle-aged individual with grown children. Unresolved conflicts and interpersonal relationships are considered from the perspective of Erikson’s 8-stage theory. TAGS: psychological development theory, Erikson, 8-stage theory human development, unresolved psychological conflict, aging and development. APA Style. 7 pages, 5 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,719 words.
  $49
 

18794. ADOLESCENTS AND THE MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY.

This essay is concerned with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), a self-report assessment tool that is often used to identify personality disorders. Emphasis is placed on the use of the MMPI to measure personality traits in adolescents, and it is argued that the inventory is not fully appropriate for use with this population. TAGS: psychological assessment research paper, personality testing, psychometrics, MMPI, adolescents. APA Style. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,691 words.
  $49
 

18769. CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN MEXICAN-AMERICAN AND ANGLO MOTHERS.

This paper critically reviews the article “Determinants of Complexity in Mexican-American and Anglo-American Mothers’ Conceptions of Child Development,” by Gutierrez & Sameroff (1990). The article concerns a study which finds biculturalism and perspectivistic beliefs to be significant in increasing flexibility in child-rearing patterns. The review concludes by disagreeing with the implication that biculturalism should be emphasized more in American education and society. TAGS: child development, maternal influences, culture, Mexican-Americans, biculturalism, Latinos, education, article review. APA Style. 8 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,773 words.
  $56
 

18746. CHILD DEVELOPMENT THEORIES.

This paper compares and contrasts the key concepts of three theories of child development: Erik Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory, Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory, and Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. Based on a critical assessment of the three theories, it is argued that Bronfenbrenner’s theory is more effective than the other two theories because it is more complete, realistic, practical and flexible. KEYWORDS: psychology child development Erikson Piaget Bronfenbrenner. APA Style. 9 pages, 16 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 2,262 words.
  $49
 

18739. GENDER DEVELOPMENT.

This paper discusses gender development, which is the process of acquiring a gender identity as well as an understanding of gender-based roles and expectations. The paper examines research evidence regarding gender development through the stages of life, the influence of social factors (as well as biological factors) on gender development, and the impact of culture on gender development. It is concluded that there are various questions about gender development that are in need of further research. KEYWORDS: psychology sociology gender development research gender identity. APA Style. 10 pages, 24 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,546 words.
  $70
 

18734. THE ROLE OF SHAME IN SHAPING CHARACTER.

This paper defines shame as a social emotion and notes the similarities and differences between shame, embarrassment and guilt. It is argued that shame plays a role in moral development and that it is important for individuals to cope with shame in order to avoid possible psychosocial problems. It is further argued that coping with shame contributes to positive character development and that therapeutic interventions should be used in cases where individuals have difficulties in coping with shame. Includes outline. KEYWORDS: social psychology emotion therapy development morality shaming. MLA Style. 15 pages, 41 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 3,793 words.
  $105
 

18698. HARRY STACK SULLIVAN’S THEORY OF PERSONALITY.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the personality theory of Harry Stack Sullivan, which emphasizes the role of interpersonal interactions in personality development. The paper includes a discussion of the major constructs of the theory, as well as a discussion of the evidence from empirical studies that have provided support for the theory. KEYWORDS: psychology personality theory research Sullivan interpersonal psychiatry child development friendships peer interactions. APA Style. 12 pages, 22 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,884 words.
  $84
 

18659. ALTERNATIVES TO SPANKING.

This paper is concerned with the recent trend among parents to seek alternatives to spanking when disciplining their children. Studies have indicated that spanking leads to psychological and social problems in later life. Various alternative methods are described, including verbal punishment, time out, grounding, and removal of a toy or privilege. It is argued that such punishments must be properly implemented (for example, they must be consistent, age-appropriate, and balanced with positive reinforcements). Includes annotated bibliography. KEYWORDS: psychology child development punishment positive reinforcement. APA Style. 6 pages, 17 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,375 words.
  $42
 

18107. FAMILIES OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES.

This paper addresses the roles of family members in dealing with emotional and behavioral disturbances in a child with a disability. It is argued that social context and the characteristics of family members are more influential than family composition and constellation. It is important for parents and siblings to have effective coping styles and to be capable of providing a positive outlook. The paper also discusses the role of family belief systems and the need for social support (both informal and formal). KEYWORDS: children disabilities families coping social support. Written 2006. APA Style. 12 pages, 26 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,980 words.
  $84
 

18106. COGNITIVE VIEWS OF LEARNING.

This paper describes the cognitive view of learning and how it differs from the behaviorist view. Emphasis is placed on the information processing model of memory, which sees the mind as being similar to a computer. It is noted that there are educational implications in the fact that human memory has limited capacity. Some techniques that can be used to improve memory are discussed, including chunking and mnemonics using imagery and loci (or "pegs"). KEYWORDS: education learning cognition memory. APA Style. 6 pages, 12 footnotes in text, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

18094. SOCIODRAMATIC PLAY.

This paper starts by noting the trend in early childhood education of emphasizing academic results and neglecting the use of play-related activities. It is argued that certain play activities are useful in the development of preschoolers and special needs students. As long as the play is "mature" play (involving role-playing and the symbolic use of props), it can contribute to such things as creativity, cognitive abilities, social and emotional development, communication skills, and learning about diversity issues. KEYWORDS: education development play. Written 2006. APA Style. 7 pages, 21 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,768 words.
  $49
 

17767. CHILDHOOD EXPOSURE TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of children’s exposure to domestic violence (spouse abuse, family violence). Following a brief overview of the problem of domestic violence and a discussion of the likely scope of the problem of children’s exposure to domestic violence, the essay considers the symptoms and signs of children’s exposure to domestic violence, children’s methods of disclosing violence in the home as well as strategies to draw children out, and the short- and long-term consequences of children’s exposure to family violence and abuse. A concluding section looks at strategies that teachers, community leaders and counselors can take to address the problem. KEYWORDS: spouse abuse children child abuse domestic violence violent families term paper. Written 2006. APA Style. 11 pages, 29 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 3,326 words.
  $77
 

17746. SENIOR ADULTS VS. ADOLESCENTS: PATTERNS OF SOCIAL, COGNITIVE, AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN TWO AGE GROUPS.

This paper considers the differences between adolescents (16-19 years of age) and senior adults (over the age of 60) as they pertain to the way in which each group navigates the stages of social, cognitive, and physical development. By examining questions pertaining to the groups’ social interactions, self-identity, and personal aspirations, it becomes apparent that while adolescents and senior adults experience common emotions, the two groups ultimately undergo different experiences, as the pressures and tensions on them are unique. KEYWORDS: developmental psychology life span adolescence senior elderly. Written 2006. Strict APA Style. 12 pages, 41 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,990 words.
  $84
 

17739. HELPING CHILDREN FOLLOWING A TERRORIST ATTACK: A CRISIS INTERVENTION PLAN.

This paper outlines a crisis intervention response following a hypothetical multiple-target terrorist attack affecting several U.S. cities. The crisis intervention program is designed to alleviate psychological suffering and address traumatic reaction among children aged 4 to 11 years. The plan focuses on children manifesting post-traumatic stress reactions and those considered to be at high risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Following a discussion of children’s likely responses and abreactions to the attacks, a plan for assessment and intervention is outlined. Talk, play and art therapy techniques are recommended for use with the children. Counseling interventions are planned for parents and school personnel. KEYWORDS: terrorism ptsd children crisis intervention child psychology play therapy. Written 2006. APA Style throughout. 8 pages, 21 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,246 words.
  $56
 

17633. A CONTENT ANALYSIS STUDY OF GENDER ROLE PORTRAYALS IN CHILDREN’S LITERATURE.

This paper presents a study exploring the changes (or lack thereof) in gender role portrayal and stereotyping in children’s literature, with particular attention to gender asymmetries. A content analysis methodology was used to explore a sample of children’s books originally published prior to 1970 with a sample of children’s books published after 1990. The study sample consisted of five male-character-oriented and five female-character-oriented books (total sample = 20) from each time period. The study tested three hypothesis: 1) Females are more often portrayed in non-traditional roles in the post-1990 literature than in the pre-1970 literature; 2) Females are more frequently depicted in non-traditional roles in the post-1990 literature than male characters; and 3) There appears to be little change in the gender role depictions of male characters between the pre-1970 and post-1980 literature samples. Strong support was found for all three hypotheses. Included in the study write-up are twenty (one for each book) content analysis coding sheets specifying dependent and independent variables and gender role coding for each book analyzed. KEYWORDS: gender roles female characters male characters. APA Style. 26 pages, 32 footnotes, 27 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

17616. GENDER DEVELOPMENT.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of gender development in childhood. The paper discusses the biological influences on gender development and compares the major social and cognitive theories on gender development. Theories considered included the psychoanalytic perspective, social role theory, cognitive development theory, gender schema theory, and the social cognitive theory. Concludes that the social cognitive theory provides the best and the most thorough explanation of how gender role and identity arise in childhood. KEYWORDS: gender development gender identity gender role child development. Written 2005. MLA Style. 10 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,374 words.
  $70
 

17446. ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the closely linked problems of adolescent depression and suicide. The first section profiles the problem of teen depression: discussing the epidemiology and etiology; considering how depression in teenagers differs from that found in adults; discussing the impact; and examining the role of family and peer relations as well as self-identity issues in the course of adolescent depression. The next section profiles the closely associated problem of suicide in adolescence: discussing its prevalence across the adolescent population; scrutinizing the etiological role played by depression and other factors in adolescent depression; and examining the role of family and peer relations along with self-identity issues as both risk factors and protective factors in teen suicidality. KEYWORDS: teen suicide depression adolescent mental illness adolescence. Written 2003. APA Style. 12 pages, 62 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources. 3,815 words.
  $84
 

17428. BIPOLAR DISORDER IN CHILDREN.

Through a review of scholarly literature, this paper provides a brief overview and analysis of Bipolar disorder in children, with a particular focus on young (prepubertal) children. The paper discusses the estimated prevalence of the illness in children, identifies known and suspected risk factors for developing the illness and outlines the clinical course and symptoms of the disorder in children. The analysis also considers differential diagnosis, commonly associated disorders, and how bipolar disorder in children differs from bipolar disorder in adults. KEYWORDS: manic-depression bipolar childhood ADHD mood disorders. Written 2005. 7 pages, 27 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 1,628 words.
  $49
 

17418. LEARNED HELPLESSNESS: PROBLEM, THEORY & INTERVENTION.

This paper examines the phenomenon of learned helplessness, an orientation in the learner leading to both motivational and cognitive disturbances (and related deficits in performance). The academic literature on learned helplessness in both children and adults is reviewed. Drawing primarily on Seligman’s reformulated theory of learned helplessness, but also considering Dweck’s self-theories, the paper describes the problem of learned helplessness and examines its underlying mechanisms. Cognitive intervention strategies to address the problem consistent with Seligman’s and Dweck’s models are presented and discussed. A plan to evaluate the impact of these strategies, and a discussion of why learning may have failed to occur is also presented. KEYWORDS: learning theory motivation failure identity attributional retraining social cognitive theory. Written 2004. 20 pages, 134 footnotes, 46 bibliographic references. 4,698 words.
  $133
 

17325. AN INTERVIEW ON MOTIVATION.

This paper discusses the findings from a 50 minute interview regarding a particular person’s motivation. The subject for the interview was a forty-three-year old man named Danny. The questions for the interview were designed to uncover (without being too intrusive) the physiological and psychological factors that influence Danny’s sense of motivation. The analysis includes a summary of the subject’s current motivational state and recommendations on life changes. The interview questions and an edited summary of the subject’s responses are included. KEYWORDS: individual motivation motivational theory interview. Written 2005. 10 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 2,674 words.
  $70
 

17237. THE SOCIAL BOND THEORY AND THE SELF-CONTROL THEORY.

This paper discusses Hirschi’s view that the four elements of ‘social bonds’ play a role in preventing crime. Hirschi’s social bond theory of crime is compared with the view of Gottfredson and Hirschi regarding the role of ‘self-control’ in crime reduction. The basic similarities between the social bond and self-control theories of crime are described. Keywords: crime theory child development parental attachment. 5 pages; 7 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,317 words.
  $35
 

17206. THE IMPACT OF DIVORCE ON CHILDREN.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of parents’ divorce on children. The paper first provides a summary overview of the literature examining the general impact of parental divorce on children. Next, the investigation looks at some of the factors which seem to mitigate or exacerbate the impact of parental divorce on children’s well-being. Finally, the literature on post-divorce intervention programs (aimed at helping children of divorce) is briefly considered. Keywords: divorce psychological impact children broken homes parents. Written 2004. 12 pages; 39 footnotes; 26 bibliographic sources. 3,386 words.
  $84
 

17177. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of research methods in psychology. Following an overview of the scientific method and its application within psychological research, the processes of creating and testing hypotheses, evaluating a study, and creating a reliable and valid experiment are considered. The analysis also considers ethical issues in research, including the appropriate and inappropriate use of risk and deception. The statistical analysis of results and the application of descriptive and inferential statistics are also discussed. The concluding section provides a summary analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of various methods of research in psychology. Keywords: psychology research methodology experiments design. Written 2004. 21 pages; 42 footnotes; 11 bibliographic sources. 5,293 words.
  $133
 

17175. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION.

This paper discusses and analyzes various aspects of second language acquisition. The first section presents a research design of a study which would test the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis in both its strong and weak versions. The second section compares the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis with the Access to Universal Grammar Hypothesis. The third section discusses similarities and differences between first and second language acquisition. Keywords: linguistics language acquisition theory. Written 2004. 12 pages; 21 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 2,947 words.
  $84
 

17166. THE "COMMON CULTURE" OF YOUTH.

This essay explores the concept of youth and identity formation with reference to social differentiation in terms of race, ethnicity, class, gender, age, and locality. The analysis considers to what extent and in what sense there exists a ‘common culture’ of youth. It is argued that there is a common culture of youth. It is argued that there is a common culture of youth in the sense that youths of various ages, gender, ethnic, racial and geographic backgrounds make use of similar modes of cultural expression (e.g. music, dress, etc.), although the specifics of this expression are influenced by race, ethnicity, gender, age, and locality. It is further argued that young people use culture to create and define their identities. Written 2003. 25 pages; 62 footnotes; 25 bibliographic sources. 6,493 words.
  $133
 

17145. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY & MODELING: AN EXPLANATION FOR THE HARMFUL EFFECTS OF TV VIOLENCE.

This paper begins with a brief review of the research findings on the link between exposure to TV violence and aggressive behavior in children. Following this, the paper discusses how Bandura’s social leaning theory and work on “modeling” provides a theoretical explanation for the harmful effects of television violence on children and adolescents. Written 2003. 11 pages; 25 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources. 2,551 words.
  $77
 

17144. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION IN DEAF CHILDREN.

Drawing on theories about how spoken language emerges in hearing children, this paper considers how the deaf child learns sign language. Oliver Sacks’ book, “Seeing Voices: A Journey into the World of the Deaf” is the primary reference used. The analysis demonstrates that Sign Language is a ‘real’ language with distinct structural properties and shows that Sign Language acquisition in the deaf follows the same general pattern as spoken language acquisition in the hearing. Written 2003. 10 pages; 22 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources. 2,307 words.
  $70
 

17132. THE STRONG CONTINUITY HYPOTHESIS IN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the Strong Continuity Hypothesis (SCH) as a solution to the “problem of development” in language acquisition. The strong continuity hypothesis is explicated and then compared and contrasted to the maturation hypothesis as well as to the weak continuity hypothesis. Drawing on research in both first and second language acquisition, the analysis consider the theoretical and empirical support for the strong continuity hypothesis. Written 2003. 12 pages; 36 footnotes; 14 bibliographic sources. 3,762 words.
  $84
 

17023. "THE ORIGINS OF CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE BREAKDOWN OF THE BICAMERAL MIND" BY JULIAN JAYNES (BOOK REVIEW).

This paper discusses Jaynes’s unique theory on the emergence of self-consciousness in humans, including the existence of hallucinatory voices in ancient man and the ‘vestiges’ of the bicameral mind in the contemporary world. Although the theory is both speculative and controversial, it is worthy of further study and debate. Keywords: human consciousness ancient. 5 pages; 9 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.
  $35
 

15922. CONTEMPORARY YOUTH PATTERNS IN LEISURE.

This paper reviews the literature on factors influencing leisure choices in youth (including constraints, social class, gender, etc.). It is noted that leisure patterns tend to change over the course of time (as the young person grows older). The role of leisure in personal and social development is also considered. KEYWORDS: leisure studies youth. 13 pages; 33 footnotes; 13 bibliographic sources.
  $91
 

15921. THE IMPACT OF LEISURE ON IDENTITY FORMATION IN ADOLESCENTS.

This paper discusses studies regarding the role of structured activities, the impact of gender on leisure choices, and the role of leisure in the development of work-related identities. The conclusion includes reference to some of the policy suggestions that have been made in regard to the topic. 12 pages; 19 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

15916. THE INFLUENCE OF LEISURE ON PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AND IDENTITY.

Emphasizing the findings of three scholarly studies, this paper discusses three major themes relating to leisure and identity formation. These are: 1) gender differences exist in leisure choices; 2) leisure activities facilitate identity formation by providing a way to explore options, and 3) structured activities have a more positive impact than unstructured activities. 11 pages; 22 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

15853. CHILDHOOD AUTISM.

This paper describes the characteristics childhood autism and its rate of prevalence. Also discusses the potential causes of autism and the various approaches to treatment, including medication, behavior modification, and other strategies. 11 pages; 33 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

15757. DEVELOPMENT IN TWO ADOLESCENTS: THE "NORMAL" TURMOIL OF BEING FOURTEEN.

This paper presents a comparative analysis of human growth and development in two fourteen-year-old adolescents. The two, one female and one male, are both ninth-graders who attend different junior high schools in the same metropolitan area. Based on extensive interviews with each subject as well as on a review of current literature on adolescent development, the analysis compares the two teens current level of development to the norm (for their age and gender) and to each other. Following a brief background sketch of each teen, the analysis considers the adolescents' physical , cognitive, and personality development. A concluding section considers the progress (or lack thereof) of each adolescent as they proceed through the tasks of development. KEYWORDS: developmental psychology adolescence teen psychology normal abnormal teenage behavior personality. APA Style. 26 pages, 43 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 6,548 words.
  $133
 

15698. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE: ARE THE CONSEQUENCES ALWAYS CATASTROPHIC?

Based on a review of the academic literature, this investigation provides an overview and analysis of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse for the adult of survivors of that abuse. In addition to examining studies which point to particular areas of impact and studies which consider mitigating factors in the negative outcomes of CSA, the analysis reviews studies which challenge the common wisdom concerning CSA as a unilaterally harmful experience. 11 pages, 49 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

15645. TRAUMATIC BEREAVEMENT: CHILDREN'S RESPONSES TO THE SUDDEN DEATH OF A PARENT.

Taking a child development perspective, this paper provides an overview and analysis of children's responses to the traumatic death of a parent. Questions under consideration include the following: How does a child's stage of development affect his or her grief response? Do children have the same "tasks of grieving" as adults? What are some of the mitigating factors affecting the child's negotiation of the grief process? To what degree are children exposed to the traumatic death of a parent at risk for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder? KEYWORDS: bereavement children grief grieving child traumatic parental death. 15 pages, 36 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 4,521 words.
  $105
 

15530. EXPLAINING TERRORISM TO CHILDREN.

In response to September 11, 2001 attacks in New York, this paper discusses ways to explain such things as death and terrorism to children. Various ideas are discussed, including the need for reassuring without "pampering," and the importance of parents and other caregivers serving as role models. 6 pages, 22 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

15461. FOSTER CARE AND COGNITIVE-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN.

This term paper explores the impact of out-of-home placement (foster care) on the emotional and cognitive development of school-aged children, with a close focus on the impact of foster care on children's academic achievement and school behavior. The essay concludes that children in the foster care system are at much higher risk of cognitive and emotional development delays then children in the general community. The paper finds that placement disruptions and other factors in the foster care environment contribute to these problems. KEYWORDS: foster care psychological educational impact developmental delay foster families. APA Style. 18 pages, 62 footnotes, 30 bibliographic references.
  $126
 

14092. THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES.

A review of literature which describes the theory of Howard Gardner and its implications for education. Considers both the pro and con views on the theory, and concludes that it is beneficial to educators despite its imperfections. 11 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographical references.
  $77
 

14039. BIRTH ORDER AND PERSONALITY.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the current literature on the influence of birth order on personality. The analysis begins with an overview of the theoretical framework which supports the argument that birth order influences individual personality. The second section focuses on empirical studies of the birth-order/personality link. A concluding section summarizes the findings and argues that the connection between birth order and personality is a tenuous one at best. KEYWORDS: birth order psychology personality term paper. APA Style. 17 pages, 43 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references. 4,313 words.
  $119
 

14007. PARENTAL ATTACHMENT AND CHILDREN'S BEHAVIOR.

This termpaper provides a review of the recent scholarly literature on parental-child attachment and children’s subsequent social development with a focus on the extent to which attachment style predicts children’s subsequent behavioral problems and/ or development of pro-social behaviors. The analysis includes a review of studies which provide a general overview of secure versus insecure attachment and social adjustment; studies which address mediating factors (in particular, maternal depression) on the attachment-social development association; and studies which examine the special role disorganized attachment styles and subsequent behavioral problems. KEYWORDS: parental attachment styles social development children term paper. APA Style. 20 pages, 34 footnotes, 14 bibliographic references. 5,307 words.
  $133
 

13940. EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION.

This paper reviews the scholarly literature on developmental research of expressed emotion. Discusses the hypothesis of the universality of expressed emotions, the facial feedback hypothesis, and the coherence of expressive modalities. The analysis considers whether or not it is possible to assume that the display of a certain emotional expression corresponds to experiencing that particular emotion. 14 pages, 25 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.
  $98
 

13874. MEN AND MID-LIFE TRANSITION.

Following a general discussion of the psychology of aging and changes throughout the lifecycle, this paper draws primarily on Levinson's The Seasons of a Man's Life to focus on the challenges and crises of men's transitions in middle and late adulthood. 8 pages, 15 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

13844. RACE AND INTELLIGENCE.

Traces the history and current controversies surrounding the purported racially-based differences in intelligence and aptitude. Describes the historical development of the concept of race and the evolution of Social Darwinism and its dogma on racially-based differences. Considers current theories about race and intelligence as developed by Jensen and others. Concludes that race cannot be linked to intelligence tests because race is not a valid scientific, genetic or biological concept. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

13764. APHASIA IN CHILDREN.

A profile of childhood aphasia (lack of language development as the result of neurological factors). Defines the condition and discusses diagnostic protocols and quandaries; reviews the etiology of childhood aphasia; describes the major symptoms and characteristics; and provides a detailed discussion of the educational methods used with aphasic children. 15 pages, 33 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.
  $105
 

13638. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION BY ADULTS.

Focusing on cognitive and linguistic (versus social) perspectives, this paper examines the theory and experience of second language acquisition in adults. Examines the major cognitive and linguistic theories of second language acquisition (including Monitor Model, interlanguage theory, Universal Grammar, and cognitive theories). Considers the debate over access to Universal Grammar (UG) by adult second language acquirers. Presents and analyzes the debate related to "critical period effects" and second language acquisition in adults. 12 pages, 34 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

13616. SIMULTANEOUS BILINGUAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of simultaneous bilingual language development. Following an overview of current theories of bilingualism and second language acquisition as they apply to simultaneous bilingualism and language development, the analysis focuses closely on issues of bilingualism and child developmental issues. To this end, particular attention is devoted to the major contoversies in the bilingual literature: 1) unitary-versus dual-lexicon theories of bilingual development; 2) the period of language differenciation; 3) mixed languages; and 4) code-switching. A concluding section examines the implications of this research on simultaneous bilingualism for the discipline of speech language pathology. 27 pages, 79 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

13601. ADOLESCENCE AND THE SEARCH FOR IDENTITY.

This paper presents a brief investigation on the adolescent stage of development with a focus on the process of identity formation. The methodology employed is a case analysis based on face-to-face interview with adolescent volunteer subjects. A review of the theoretical literature provides support for analysis of the interview data. 9p. 13b.
  $63
 

13226. THE NATURE-NURTURE CONTROVERSY AND HUMAN INTELLIGENCE.

This report presents an overview and critical analysis of the nature-nurture controversy over human intelligence. Following an overview of the historical background to this controversy and the initial explorations of human intelligence, the basic positions and evidence supporting each side of the debate are considered. Concludes that human intelligence has a strong genetic basis, yet is nevertheless susceptible to environmental influences, particularly at an early age. 15 pages, 46 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.
  $105
 

13131. THE PROGRAM AND PHILOSOPHY OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS.

The importance of a support group and spiritual values in recovery. Also considers the view of alcoholism as a "sickness" rather than a "sin," and discusses the importance of people making a voluntary commitment to the program in order for it to work. 6 pages, 20 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

13089. NON TRADITIONAL FAMILIES: IMPACT ON CHILDREN.

Based on a review of recent scholarly literature on family structure, this report examines how the recent changes in family structure and the evolution of "alternative" family structures has affected children. The first section begins with an overview of the impact of divorce, re-marriage, and step-family arrangements on children. The next section focuses on the single parent family structure and its impact on children. Included is a look at the changing structure of the single parent family itself (e.g., the rapid increase in the proportion of "never married" single parent, the growing proportion of single father families, etc.), racial differences in single parent family composition, and the differential impact (if any) of single father versus single mother family structures. A third section looks closely at the affect of gay and lesbian parental structures on children. The concluding section considers the overall affect of family structure on children. 21 pages, 93 footnotes, 35 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

12731. COMPARISON OF MALE & FEMALE DEVELOPMENT IN TWO BOOKS: SEASONS OF A MAN'S LIFE & WOMEN'S WAYS OF KNOWING.

A comparison of the views in The Seasons of a Man's Life (Levinson, et al.) and Women's Ways of Knowing (Belenky, et al.). It is indicated that adult development in men undergoes four distinct periods (or "seasons"). By contrast, development in adult women involves a five-step process of finding a unique sense of self (or "voice"). 11 pages, 51 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

12728. AMERICA'S NEW NON-TRADITIONAL FAMILIES: THE IMPACT ON CHILDREN.

Careful, statistically-based survey of the emotional question of whether children in dual-worker, divorced, and single-parent families are "worse off" than children in "traditional" families where Mom is a full-time homemaker. Begins with detailed analysis of census data to show that 70% of America's 32 million households with children are "non-traditional," with exact stats on the various categories, including post-1945 histories of women's labor force participation, divorce and remarriage, and births to single mothers of various races. The study treats carefully through studies on causation of the evidence that children in single-parent families perform worse than children of two-parent families, showing that family income and histories of family disruption account for most of the differences observed, and also considers the evidence that both the rich and the poor suffer from America's child care situation, while the best child care actually improves children's performance compared to the average family. Concludes that type of family structure is one of the most important influences on outcomes of individuals, but that individual cases must still be considered individually with a myriad of variables. 12p. 10b. 22f.
  $84
 

12567. KIERAN EGAN'S OBJECTIONS TO PIAGET'S DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY.

A report on Egan's view that there is a lack of empirical support for Piaget's theory. Also discusses Egan's claim that teachers should take an active role in guiding children without waiting for them to reach the stages of conceptual development. 7 pages, 20 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $49
 

12565. BIRTH ORDER AND PERSONALITY.

A discussion of the extensive research which shows that first-borns tend to be more assertive as well as conservative. By contrast, the research indicates that later-born children tend to be submissive in some cases, but in other cases they may become competitive or even rebellious. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

12267. A BRIEF DISCUSSION OF PIAGET'S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT.

Describes and discusses the key elements of Piaget's theory. Identifies the central assumptions of the theory (i.e., development hinges on the ability to adapt to new situations), discusses Piaget's four stages of development, and responds to criticisms of Piaget's theory. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

12190. MONTESSORI AND SENSORY EDUCATION.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the central curricular focus of the Montessori pre-school sensory education. The first section considers influences on Montessori in the development of the sensorial material and discusses the design characteristics and central concepts of the sensorial materials. The second section reviews the importance of sensory training within the context of the child's overall development. Section three looks at the qualities of a good lesson and section four examines the teacher's role and responsibilities in the sensorial area. 12 pages, 27 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

11949. J.C. PEARCE'S MAGICAL CHILD.

Discusses Pearce's enlightened approach to child development, focusing on birth, teaching and the roles of the parents. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $42
 

11697. DEVELOPMENT OF GENDER IDENTITY.

Examines the development of gender identity from two perspectives: 1) an anecdotal point of view provided by interviews with two sets of parents; and 2) a review of five hours of TV broadcasts analyzed by gender proclivities and themes. Considers the contribution of the programs (Rosanne, Home Improvement, Highlander, Star Trek/Next Generation, Chicago Hope) to the development of gender identity. 18 pages, 4 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $126
 

11629. THE SENSIMOTOR STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT IN PIAGET'S THEORY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT.

Discussion and analysis of the sensimotor stage of development (birth to 24 months) drawing both on Piaget's own theories and on insights offered by more contemporary child development psychologists. 5p. + 1p. annotated bibliography, 14f., 6b.
  $35
 

11522. CHILDREN'S EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY.

This term paper examines the empirical evidence in recent psychological literature concerning the variables and factors of accuracy in children's eyewitness testimony. The research paper considers the issues of suggestibility, interview settings and techniques, and the mitigating role of social support and stress-reducing procedural modifications related to eyewitness identification and testimony in general, and children's eyewitness identification and testimony in particular. APA Style. 12 pages, 21 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 3,144 words.

TAGS: eyewitness identification, child eyewitness, eyewitness testimony, social motivation, environmental effects identification, memory and facial recognition, defendant rights, police manipulation, maryland v craig.

RELATED PAPERS

The Ethics of Police Line-Ups

Wrongful Convictions in Death Penalty Cases

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  $84
 

11490. COMMUNITY BASED SERVICES FOR DEPENDENT AND NEGLECTED CHILDREN.

Examines the problem of neglected children and youth in America and considers the current and appropriate future responses to the problem, with a focus on community-based services and policies. Presents an overview of the problem, including definitions, consequences and causes of child neglect. Looks at the historical and current responses to the problem of child neglect. A concluding section offers policy recommendations. 22 pages, 67 footnotes, 29 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

11474. MATERNAL DEATH AND PIAGET'S THEORY OF CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT.

Short review of Piaget's theory of childhood development focusing on the effects of a maternal death or separation in the first half of the sensorimotor phase of development (first year). 5 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

11399. PLAY IN THE EARLY CHILDHOOD CLASSROOM: A CRITICAL PART OF CHILDREN'S DEVELOPMENT.

Investigates recent theory and research analyzing the role of play in child development and its consequent application in the early childhood classroom. In addition to looking at research focusing on the role of play in cognitive development as well as its role in social development, examines the literature which explores the uses of play as a learning tool in the early childhood classroom. 21 pages, 98 footnotes, 41 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

11311. ABUSIVE FAMILIES AND CHILDREN'S SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT.

Considers the impact of parental sexual abuse on their children's psychosexual development. Analyzes skepticism toward the reality of abuse in traditional psychoanalytic theory, reviews incidence of abuse, and looks at what is known about the impact of parental sexual abuse on the child's development. 5 pages, 25 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

11310. TRADITIONAL MODELS OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT.

Analysis of traditional psychological models of sexual development. Thorough discussion of Freud's theories on the subject, including the seduction hypothesis, Oedipus/Electra Complex, and stages of sexual development. Presents contrasting views of Jung and Adler and briefly discusses a more contemporary model as developed by Piaget. 14 pages, 29 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.
  $98
 

11309. PARENTAL INFLUENCES ON CHILDREN'S PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT.

Examines the literature on parental influences on children's sexuality and sexual development. Argues that traditional models of psychosexual development are not relevant to contemporary family models and suggests that Bowlby's attachment theory provides a more useful framework. Reviews areas of parental influence on children's sexual development. Concludes with a tentative model of "healthy" family sexuality. 14 pages, 49 footnotes, 32 bibliographic sources.
  $98
 

11308. NON-TRADITIONAL PARENTS AND CHILDREN'S SEXUALITY.

Reviews the psychological literature on children's psychosexual development in non-traditional families- 1) divorced parents and 2) gay parents. Looks at parental influence on children's gender identity, gender role and sexual orientation. Concludes that parental divorce and parental sexual orientation has little impact on children's psychosexual development. 12 pages, 51 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

11307. THE IMPORTANCE OF ATTACHMENT IN PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT.

Describes and analyzes child psychologist John Bowlby's theories of attachment and the role of attachment in psychosexual development. Discusses the differences between secure attachment, anxious-resistant attachment, and anxious-avoiding attachment. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

11288. PIAGET'S THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT AND THE CHRONICALLY ILL CHILD.

Presents Piaget's theory concerning the development of a child. Considers statistics relating childhood illness to developmental impediments and reviews several studies and their findings. 5 pages, 14 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

11280. PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING AND AGING.

This paper critically examines the proposition that psychological functioning does not deteriorate with age. Reviews theories on aging and cognitive changes and analyzes current research on the topic. Includes the results of six interviews. Concludes that cognitive decline of some type ("slowing" of intellectual processes and memory deficits) is inevitable even in "successful aging." Includes analysis on factors known to be associated with more and less rapid cognitive declines among the elderly. 16 pages (+ interviews), 45 footnotes in text, 20 bibliographic sources.
  $112
 

11259. ALBERT BANDURA'S SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY.

The Canadian psychologist's theory of the social learning processes, as found in key works from 1959 to 1980, is described. Bandura is seen as a behaviorist who admits conscious internal psychological processes. 10 pages, 9 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

11219. THE ACQUISITION OF LANGUAGE.

Analyzes process of language acquisition in infants and children. Defines various stages of language and communication and tole of early childhood education in fostering skill development. 5 pages, 22 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

10670. ACQUISITION OF LANGUAGE IN HUMANS AND CHIMPS.

Interesting paper which compares two views on language acquisition: the "learning" view (associated with B. F. Skinner) and the "innate" view (Chomsky). Language experiments with chimps are discussed, but the paper finds that the inconclusive results shed no light on human language acquisition. 7 pages. 18 footnotes in text, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

10270. THE LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESS IN CHILDREN.

Report describing development of language skills in children. Traces skill acquisition from cooing and crying in infancy to sentence construction. 12 pages, 24 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

09807. THE HIDDEN AGENDAS OF AN ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS MEETING.

A critical description and analysis of a visit to an AA meeting. Criticizes AA's focus on ritual forms, lifetime commitment and the disease model of alcoholism. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

09722. DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE AND CONDITIONING THEORIES.

Considers the behavior of juvenile delinquency (specifically gang violence among teen boys) from the perspective of two psychological theorists: Erik Erikson and his epigenetic theory of the eight ages of man, and B. F. Skinner and behaviorism. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

09513. VISUAL ART PROCESSING.

The cognitive functions used in the perception and understanding of works of art are analyzed in this paper; prior knowledge, presentation time and task demands are seen as tools for seeing and interpreting art. 9 pages, 15 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

09459. CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND VISUAL ARTS.

Characterizes the shifts of development and stages children proceed through in painting and drawing. Five specific stages are identified and described: 1) Presymbolic development; 2) first visual signs; 3) creating representation; 4) observation, imagination and invention; and 5) pre-adolescence. 11 pages, 24 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

08989. ARTICLE REVIEW: "DECISIONS AND MEMORY: DIFFERENTIAL RETRIEVABILITY OF CONSISTENT AND CONTRADICTORY EVIDENCE."

Reviews the purpose, scope and significance of this article which appeared in a 1984 issue of the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. The article considers the structure and processes of different types of memory and its relation to learning. KEYWORDS: memory learning education cognitive processes short-term memory retention. 2 pages, 1 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $14
 

07239. ROBERT H. LAUER'S "PERSPECTIVES ON SOCIAL CHANGE" - A CRITICAL REACTION.

Critical book review of this work summarizing the many theories of social change which sociologists and others have presented. Approves of Lauer's idea that change is normal in society, not unusual; generally approves of Lauer's ability to summarize, but emphasizes the need for even greater editorial direction than Lauer gives if these diverse and contradictory theories of social change are to be meaningful to the student. 5 pages, 1 bibliographic source. Notes in text.
  $35
 

06824. SHORT-TERM MEMORY AS IT RELATESS TO MATHEMATICAL CONCEPT LEARNLNG.

A review on short-term memory as it relates to matbematical concept learning. Current models are discussed in and attempt to explain the organization and strcture of short-term memory and its relation to learning. 14 pages, 22 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.
  $98
 

06732. JEAN PIAGE'S LECTURE "THE THOUGHT OF THE YOUNG CHILD."

A critique of a lecture by the renowned child psychologist on the theme that cognitive structures develop through action rather than innate form 6 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

06697. THE DRAW A PERSON TEST. E.L.

Goodenough's Draw-a-person test is discussed in terms of reliability, validity and significance. The variables and controls of the testing process are also looked at. 10 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source.
  $70
 

06692. THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT.

A comparative analysis of Erikson's and Piaget's theories of human development, following their stages of development and concept of generational interaction. 8 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

06067. PERCEIVED REALITY IN TELEVISION BY YOUNG CHILDREN.

Introductory study of television's role in the socialization of children, emphasizing racial and sexual steriotypes. Discusses four studies, theories of education and socialization. 12 pages, 8 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

05433a. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE VARIABLES IMPORTANT IN "DISCIPLINE" PROBLEMS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION.

Various causes of discipline problems are discussed. The scholarly literature of the field is reviewed, including among others, the work of John Dewey, R. De Charms, and Gregory Bateson. KEYWORDS: discipline problems children education theory. 15 pages, 12 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.
  $105
 

05120. OBJECT-RELATIONS THEORIES.

Theories of how a child's ego is influenced by relations with people and objects are considered in this study of psychic development. Concepts of Kle-n, Winnicott and others are reviewed, with the ego seen as balanced between self and object relations. 14 pages, 0 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $98
 

04598. AN ANALYSIS OF CHILD LANGUAGE AQUISITION.

Very good discussion of the problems of analyzing the process by which children acquire a language. Good discussion of the pros and cons of the two major theories, "innateness" (kids naturally know how to speak) and "behavioralist" (positive reinforcement tells them what's what.) Also discusses the psychological uniqueness of language learning, and relation between child usages and evolution of languages. 24 pages, 32 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

03595. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN.

Good overview and discussion of the influence of social stratification and family types on the development of language; functions of language in varying situations, varying abilities in different social classes, dialects and Black English, language as a basic expression of and tool for expanding culture. 14 pages, 11 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $98
 

03352. FALSE CONSCIOUSNESS -

The Marxian concept of "false consciousness" as ideology is examined. The role of this concept of consciousness is the process of history is commented on, and the relation of the oppressed lack of self-awareness to the ruling class picture of human nature. 10 pages, 0 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $70
 

02512. THE MANIFESTATIONS OF SIBLING RIVALRY.

Good thorough study of how and why sibling rivalry occurs, with attention on typical strategies used by jealous children, advice on how parent can overcome. 11 pages, 10 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

02420. FANTASY IN THE CHILD'S WORLD OF PLAY.

Good overview of the role of play in child development;, explanations of play (surplus energy, practice of instincts, self expression); author adopts the latter theory, shows how play allows children to experience much larger range of reality. Also stages of ego development reflected in play. 10 pages, 13 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

02419. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF INSTITUTIONS ON CHILDREN.

Basic overview of studies which prove that institutionalized children score lower on every type of psychological test employed. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

02347. A NEW COMMUNITY.

A call for a renewal of the Utopian vision of communal living. After a brief criticism of the contemporary world and the structure of state, job and family in society, a bi-polar community is proposed, in which the problems of city-country, freedom-discipline, and agrarian-technological conflicts are resolved. This is a personal account of the ideology behind a social-corporation community in Michigan. 19 pages, 0 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

02141. JAMES WATSON AND FREUD ON EDUCATION.

Good basic study on the thoughts of William James on psychology and education; basic ideas of J. B. Watson and Freud are briefly mentioned. 6p., 10f., sb.
  $42
 

01994. DAVID MATZA'S "BECOMING DEVIANT."

Review of David Matza's book on the philosophy of deviance, in which another sociologist discovers that deviant-behavior is socially defined, and that it travels from one person to another through "affiliation," which is "a sort of sociological contagion." In other words, bad habits are infectious. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

01968. STATTS AND PIAGET ON THE ACQUISITION OF LANGUAGE.

Good basic comparison of learning theory and Piaget on the question of how a child acquires the ability to talk; overall comparison of the two schools of thought, why learning theory sees language as another example of stimulus and response, why Piaget can say there is a common mental structure in all kids that governs language learning. 6 pages, 0 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

01064. SOCIALIZATION: THEORY AND PRACTICE.

Very good, detailed examination of the processes by which cultural values are implanted in children, with numerous examples from various American indian cultures, Soviet Union, modern America. Well-written, well-organizrd. 17 pages, 35 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.
  $119
 

00536. THE ROLE OF PLAY IN SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD.

Well-organized, clinical and precise study of play, from its role in culture and other primates, its vital contribution to physical. affective and social development, to its forms and its overall contribution to mental health. 13 pages, 0 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources. (notes in text.)
  $91
 
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