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18C. WESTERN PHILOSOPHY TO 1900


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18882. Emerson on Individualism.

This term paper discusses what the American philosopher, Ralph Waldo Emerson, sought for his audience in regard to the topic of individualism and why his audience found his views to be appealing. The discussion includes an examination of key passages in Emerson’s essays “Self-Reliance,” “Fate,” “Man the Reformer,” and “History.” TAGS: Emerson, essay, individualism, self-reliance, philosophy, American history. MLA Style. 6 pages, 5 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 1,412 words.
  $42
 

18789. The Humanist Utilitarianism of John Stuart Mill.

This term paper discusses the writings of John Stuart Mill that combined the views of utilitarianism and humanism and subsequently had an influence on the development of political and economic thought in the world’s democratic nations. It is noted that this influence continues to be felt in the present day. TAGS: moral philosophy essay, john stuart mill, economics, humanism, utilitarianism, ethics research paper. MLA Style. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,272 words
  $35
 

18732. The Mind-Body Problem in the Thought of Locke and Hume.

This paper is concerned with the philosophical problem, introduced by René Descartes, of defining the mind and body and the interrelationship between the two. The paper focuses on the views of the British Empiricists in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, with particular emphasis on the views of John Locke and David Hume. It is argued that the Empiricists’ reliance on data from the senses limited the possible solutions to the problem, which continues to raise issues in the present day. TAGS: 18th century enlightenment philosophy mind body Empiricism Descartes Locke Hume. MLA Style. 8 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,930 words.
  $56
 

17707. The Internet and Contemporary Computer Crime.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of Internet-mediated computer crimes and threats such as denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, phishing, pharming, phraud, spyware, ransomeware, and other forms of fraud and malicious hacking. The analysis discusses the scope of the overall problem and provides an overview of the latest forms and trends in Internet frauds, scams and hacking. The impact of the problem on both business and individual computer users is also considered. A concluding section considers the ethics of Internet crime from the three perspectives of deontology, utilitarianism, and relativism. KEYWORDS: internet web computer crime fraud phising pharming denial-of-service ddos spyware adware virus worm. APA Style. 12 pages, 51 footnotes, 32 bibliographic sources. 3,057 Words.
  $84
 

17631. War, Liberty & Patriotism: Bush’S Preventive War in the Context of Hobbes and Machiavelli.

Using Benjamin R. Barber’s (2003) book, Fear’s Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy and the Bush administration’s policy of ‘preventive war’ in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, this paper discusses the constructs of “preventive war” and “preventive democracy” as expressed by Barber, Niccolo Machiavelli, and Thomas Hobbes’ view on these subjects. KEYWORDS: george w bush foreign policy preventive strike thomas hobbes Machiavelli Benjamin barber war liberty patriotism. MLA Style. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,674 words.
  $49
 

17618. Literature Review: The Use of Philosophical Concepts in Explanations of Police Corruption.

This paper provides a review of the scholarly literature on causal factors in police corruption. The objective of the review is to examine the extent to which certain specific concepts (falling into the basic categories of consequentialism/utilitarianism and deontology/duty and principle) are used to argue for interventions against police corruption and to determine which arguments are the most effective in terms of describing the moral dilemma at the heart of the problem. Concludes that most theoretical discussions of police corruption focus on causal explanations rather than on moral issues, per se, and that most of the causal explanations have emphasized the role of sociological and/or psychological factors versus philosophical concepts. KEYWORDS: police corruption causes theory philosophy utilitarianism deontology. APA Style. 14 pages, 28 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 3,443 words.
  $98
 

17321. John Stuart Mill’S “on Liberty”.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of John Stuart Mill’s view on the relationship between the individual and society, as presented in his essay “On Liberty”. Agrees with Mill’s position on the relationship between the individual and society, as well as with the implications of that position in regard to women’s rights and the controversial moral issues of the present day. Finds Mill’s arguments to be reasonable and thorough, and agrees that it makes sense to limit societal intervention to situations that involve harm to others. KEYWORDS: moral philosophy Mill utilitarianism. 7 pages, 8 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,830 words.
  $49
 

17293. Empiricism.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the historical development of empiricism (the belief that all human knowledge comes through sensory experience), a way of thinking that had a strong influence on the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The paper describes the historical factors in the origin and spread of empiricism, as well as the views of its major proponents (e.g., Locke, Hume) and opponents (Descartes, Kant, the rationalists). Also discusses the lasting influence of empiricism on Western Civilization. KEYWORDS: empiricism John Locke David Hume Enlightenment. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 2,177 words.
  $70
 

17292. Emerson and Transcendentalism.

This paper explains the basic concepts of Transcendentalism, and describes the impact that Emerson had on the development of New Thought and Unity. Argues that Emerson’s views had a significant impact on New Thought and Unity. KEYWORDS: transcendentalism Ralph Waldo Emerson new thought unity Kant intuition individuality. 6 pages, 19 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,417 words.
  $42
 

17057. "The First System" by Auguste Comte (Book Review).

This paper summarizes the first two chapters of this book by the 19th century French social philosopher, Auguste Comte. The first chapter discusses the nature and importance of the positivist philosophy, and the second chapter describes a hierarchical classification of the sciences. Keywords: positivist philosophy. 7 pages; 26 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.
  $49
 

17038. Descartes and Spinoza on Free Will.

Spinoza believed that all things are determined, but Descartes claimed that the human mind has free will. This paper describes the respective views of these philosophers and argues that Descartes is more convincing. Keywords: determination free will philosophy. 5 pages; 10 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

15891. Renaissance Humanism and the Resurrection of Classical Texts.

This paper discusses how the imitation of classical texts resulted in a sense of anachronism which in turn led to the development of a relativistic perspective on history (the historical perspective of the modern era). Also discusses how this view evolved in the works of Petrarch, Valla, Machiavelli, Erasmus, Montaigne, and others. 12 pages; 29 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

15860. The Life and Philosophy of Georg w.f. Hegel.

This paper discusses Hegel's Idealism, his theory of "World Spirit," dialectic method, and influence on later thinkers. Notes that while Hegel's influence declined in the early 20th century, there has been a recent revival of the study of his philosophical ideas. 12 pages; 38 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources. 3,388 words.
  $84
 

15826. Petrarch and the Distinctive Nature of Renaissance Humanism.

This paper discusses the influence of classical rhetoric and Christian beliefs on Petrarch's thought, as well as his emphasis on the importance of individualism and self-exploration. Petrarch rejected the scholastic idea of 'absolute truth' and claimed that there are limits to knowledge; thus, according to Petrarch, "it is better to will the good than to know the truth." 15 pages; 50 footnotes; 13 bibliographic sources.
  $105
 

15823. The Influence of the Principles of John Locke on the u.s. Government.

Discusses Locke's views on the separation of powers and the role of the executive branch in the use of power, and argues that the U.S. government has strayed from the principles of Locke in regard to these issues. 6 pages; 18 footnotes; 3 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

15800. Utopia (Sir Thomas More).

Discusses how More criticized the flaws of his own society and presented an alternative society with "communist" overtones. Specifically, it is argued that More's Utopia advocates a type of communism that is strongly influenced by Christian ideals and values. 9 pages, 27 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

15795. Rousseau and Luther on Humanism.

Drawing on Rousseau's Confessions and the collected works of Martin Luther, this paper traces the shift away from the sacred to the secular during the Reformation era, and the influence that each man had in shaping the basic ideals of humanist philosophy. Notes Rousseau's influence in politics, Luther's on religious thoughts of the era, and argues that both men saw the individual as having moral authority and as possessed of free will. 9 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

15743. Hegel's Master-Slave Dialectic.

According to Hegel, the self emerges through relations with others, and these relations are inevitably based on positions of dominance and submission. This paper discusses how these ideas are expressed in works by Jessica Benjamin and Jacques Lacan, in the 1967 film Blow-Up, and in medical cases as reported in works by Oliver Sacks and Georges Didi-Hubermann. 11 pages, 36 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

15734. Democracy and the Philosophy of Pragmatism.

American democracy has been influenced by pragmatism despite the fact that the Founding Fathers emphasized the importance of natural law and pragmatism rejects absolute principles. This paper describes the pro and con views on pragmatism's influence, and argues that the pragmatic view is the correct one to take because there is a need for the acceptance of pluralism and tolerance in contemporary democracy. 11 pages, 33 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

15728. Political Rule in an Age of Inequality.

The paper describes the differing ways that Machiavelli, Martin Luther and Rousseau all argued that, although people are fundamentally equal, there is still a need for political rule. Concludes with a personal opinion emphasizing the need for balance between government and individual and for the importance of the consent of the people in legitimizing governmental power. 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

15707. The Influence of Emerson on the Poetry of Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson.

This paper discusses how both poets were influenced by the views of the transcendentalist philosopher, Ralph Waldo Emerson. However, each poet also had their own unique style; these differences were due in part to the different gender of the two poets. 6 pages; 20 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

15545. Hegelian Philosophy.

An overview of the system developed by the German philosopher Hegel (1770-1831). The paper discusses his life, influences, dialectical methods, and views on Absolute Idealism, among other things. Also discusses Hegel's followers (Right and Left Hegelians), and his influence on later philosophers, some who agreed with his views, and others who disagreed. Concludes that Hegel's views are still relevant in the present day, because of his impact on the history of philosophical thought. 13 pages, 50 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $91
 

15108. Kant’S “Transcendental Deduction".

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the philosopher Immanuel Kant’s set of propositions (contained in his work, The Critique of Pure Reason) known as the Transcendental Deduction. Presents a discussion of various philosophical scholars’ views of Kant’s concept. KEYWORDS: immanuel kant critique of pure reason transcendalism transcendental deduction. Parenthetical Chicago Style. 11 pages, 5 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

15107. Kant's Categorical Imperative Applied to an Ethical Problem of Internet Privacy.

This essay analyzes a specific case involving the issue of Internet privacy, "permission based marketing," and the ethics of personal information marketing, using the some widely recognized tests: Kant's categorical imperative, ends and means, act or rule utilitarianism, applied from the eudaimonitic or hedonistic point of view. KEYWORDS: kant categorical imperative utilitarianism ethics internet privacy. MLA Style. 9 pages, 8 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

15057. The Liberty Right to Use Pornographic Materials.

Argues in favor of this right, as long as the materials are kept away from children and not imposed on those who find them offensive. The argument is supported by references to the right to privacy and the dangers of censorship, as well as the views of Aristotle, Hume and J.S. Mill. 8 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.
  $56
 

15052. J. S. Mill and Nietzsche on Guilt.

Mill saw guilt as a good thing, providing a "moral sanction" that prevents people from hurting others; Nietzsche saw it as a sign of repression and weakness. This paper argues that Mill's view is more reasonable and useful in terms of morality. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.
  $42
 

14820. What Is Existentialism? Anti-Systematic Philosophy According to Heidegger, Sartre and De Beauvoir.

This paper provides a definition and explication of the philosophy of existentialism according to three prominent existential philosophers (Heidegger, Sartre and de Beauvoir). The differences and similarities in these three philosophers’ point of view are discussed and the central contributions of each thinker to the philosophy of existentialism is identified. Argus that while each of these approaches is based on the original tenet of existentialism as a philosophy where existence comes before essence, the way these different thinkers go about explaining this dictum can be very different. KEYWORDS: existentialism existentialists Sartre Heidegger de beauvoir existence essence. 6 pages, 4 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,495 words.
  $42
 

14819. What Is Human Nature? A Non-Traditional Viewpoint.

This paper describes the theories of human nature found among the Western thinkers who disagree with the traditional view of the individualistic, self-contained reality of the ego (e.g., Hegel, Marx and the materialists, and the Existentialists, including Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Buber, Sartre and Camus). Makes the case not that these thinkers discovered the truth or defined the reality of human nature, but that they opened the door to a different way of thinking about human nature, being and nothingness, and the distinction between the individual human ego and the other – the rest of the world. KEYWORDS: existentialism marx materialism human nature philosophy. 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,671 words.
  $49
 

14805. Rene Descartes’ Methods of Doubt.

This paper examines Rene Descartes various methods of doubt showing that the philosopher did not rely on the single reductio ad absurdum in his famous proof of his own existence. Demonstrates that Descartes employed several different approaches to philosophical proofs and that he was not the mechanistic logician that his mathematical background might suggest. Argues that Descartes applied different methods of doubt to different problems, depending upon whether the problem was epistemological, scientific or theological in nature. KEYWORDS: philosophy philosophical proofs Descartes epistemology. 9 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

14804. Descartes’ Self-Affirmative and Other-Created Consciousness.

This paper provides an analysis and explication of Descartes’ method of epistemology (outlined in his Discourses) and his two conclusions (“I think therefore I am,” and the concept of God as a being which does not doubt itself). Argues that Descartes’ proof of the existence of God seems to be guilty of the same a priori assumptions of a created consciousness as the medieval reasoning of Aquinas or Anselm. Speculates that Descartes might have been more concerned with avoiding the charge of atheism for his skepticism, than in overcoming the logical fallacies in the traditional scholastic proofs of the existence of God. KEYWORDS: philosophy Descartes epistemology. 6 pages, 5 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 1,411 words.
  $42
 

14098. The Concept of Freedom in Locke and j.s. Mill.

Locke’s views on natural freedom and the need for consent in forming societies are compared to Mill’s arguments for “absolute freedom” (with some exceptions). Also, whereas Locke emphasized the right of people to rebel, Mill emphasized the importance of freedom to express any opinion. 9 pages, 29 footnotes, 6 bibliographical references.
  $63
 

14009. A Defense of Machiavelli.

Argues that Machiavelli was being realistic when he urged his prince to match the ruthlessness of the other political leaders of the time. Also, based on his desire to see a strong, unified Italy, Machiavelli believed that the stability of the state was more important that normal moral concerns. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.
  $42
 

13952. Hobbes and Aristotle on Security as a Political Goal.

Hobbes believed that conflict arises because people are naturally equal, and claimed that security requires a strong ruler who keeps citizens in fear of punishment if they disobey the law. Aristotle believed that conflict is caused by inequalities and claimed that security comes from wise, just and moderate rulers. The paper argues that Aristotle's position is in fact the stronger of the two. 7 pages, 12 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.
  $49
 

13908. Locke, Spinoza and Descartes: Productive Exile in 17th Century Holland.

Examines the philosophies of the three prominent thinkers, each of whom produced their most famous works while in exile in Holland. Focuses on the major works of each philosopher: Descartes' Meditations and Discourse on Method, Spinoza's Ethics and On the Improvement of the Human Understanding and Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Essay on Tolerance - along with some selected private letters. Argues that all three philosophers achieved a necessary freedom of expression during their Dutch experience. 9 pages, 12 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

13905. Machiavelli and Aristotle on Politics.

Machiavelli was opposed to idealism and argued that a ruler should be ruthlessly practical and amoral. By contrast, Aristotle took an ethical stance on politics and felt that there is a “best type of government” that can meet the needs of all citizens. This paper concludes that Aristotle’s view is the more persuasive of the two. 7 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.
  $49
 

13775. Property Rights: Views From John Locke and Karl Marx.

Compares and contrasts Locke's theory of private property rights with Marx's rejection of private property and adaptation of Hegelian theory to hold that all property and means of production belonged to the state as a collective expression of social existence. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

13765. John Stuart Mill on the Meaning of Desire.

A brief essay considering the meaning of desire, will and habit within Mill's utilitarian moral philosophy. Agrees with Mill's position that the use of will to direct desire towards a new objective is what can generally be regarded as virtue. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

13746. Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding by David Hume.

A loose discussion of the central ideas and arguments in the philosopher's work on human reasoning and understanding. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $35
 

13743. Comparative Philosophies: Hume, Rousseau & Hobbes.

Compares and contrasts the positions and thinking of these three philosophers on a number of key questions including morality and self interest, voluntary and involuntary actions; freedom and individual interest; and self-interest and philosophy. A concluding section summarizes similarities and differences in the three philosophers' views of human nature. 16 pages, 21 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $112
 

13732. Gewirth's Response to Hume: The "Is" to "Ought" Argument.

An examination of Gewirth's reply to the fundamental problem posed by Hume, who argued that we cannot draw conclusions about what ought to be done in some future action from premises about what already is the case. The analysis first reviews Hume argument and it's reasoning, then proceeds to analyze Gewirth's counter-argument and theory concerning the underlying principles of purposive moral agency. 15 pages, 20 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $105
 

13667. On Free Will by St. Augustine.

Drawing in particular at the development of Augustine's arguments as found in Books II and III of the essay On Free Will, this paper examines Augustine's treatment of the problem of free will in the context of various related theological and philosophical problems, including the origin of sin and evil; God's omnipotence and benevolence; and whether humans have the capacity to avoid sin. 14 pages, 13 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $98
 

13600. Utilitarianism.

Contrasts the views of Jeremy Bentham and J.S. Mill on happiness and ethics, and notes that Bentham emphasized acts, individuals, egoism, and quantity, whereas Mill emphasized moral rules, collectivism, altruism, and quality. 10 pages, 36 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

13434. Kant's Categorical Imperative and Mill's Utility Principle.

Compares these two approaches to ethics and discusses the problems found in applying them to practical situations. Concludes that Mill's approach is a better guide for moral action because it is more flexible and takes the consequences of actions into account. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

13418. Anti-Aestheticism in the Literature of the 1890s (Wilde, Du Maurier, Nordau).

Examines the aesthetic poses of the find-de-siecle, and the popular response to decadent theories of art for art's sake. Compares Oscar Wilde's views on art expressed in Dorian Gray and Decay of Lying with the best-selling anti-aesthetic novel Trilby by Du Maurier and the cultural critique of Max Nordau in the tract Degeneration. 14 pages, 21 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $98
 

13406. Existential Concept of Otherness and the Unconscious in Art and Philosophy.

Looks at the origins and expressions of the existential concept of "otherness" in art and philosophy. The origins of otherness and alienation in Kierkegaard, Marx and Nietzsche are linked to existential ideas of the other in Buber, Camus and Sartre; the influence of otherness in modern art, and its meaning in anthropology, are also examined. 7p. 17f, 13b
  $49
 

13312. Sartre and Rousseau: Autobiographies of Childhood Compared.

Compares the childhood reading and life of the imagination in the two thinker's autobiographies; Rousseau's "precocious" sensuality and love of the classics are noted, and Sartre's happy childhood and library of family reading is described. 9 pages, 14 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

13310. Locke on the State of Nature.

Discusses Locke's implication that aspects of the state of nature remain after the establishment of a civil society. Also discusses the idea that the chief advantage of a voluntary civil society is found in the prevention of individual abuses of power. 6 pages, 19 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

13309. Incompatiblism of Free Will and Determinism.

Reviews the philosophical issue of determinism versus free will, arguing that the two are incompatible. Views of the ancient Greeks, Christian scholastics and modern philosophers from Hume and Kant to Sartre and Ayer are reviewed. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

13274. The Influence of Utilitarianism on Classical Economic Thought.

Discusses how the economic thinkers Smith, Ricardo, Bentham and Mill made use of such utilitarian-based concepts as utility, equality of distribution and free markets. Despite differences in views, these thinkers all emphasized the importance of the individual within the economic system. 7 pages, 23 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

13236. Free Will Versus Determinism.

Examines the views expressed by Sophocles (Oedipus the King), Voltaire (Candide), Marx and Engels (Communist Manifesto) and Freud (On Dreams). Concludes that all of these authors show both determinism and free will to exist at the same time. 8 pages, 18 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

13232. The Relationship Between Freud and Nietzsche.

Discusses Freud's theories on dreams, instincts and sublimation, and compares them with similar ideas that were expressed earlier by Nietzsche. On this basis, concludes that Nietzsche's contribution to modern thought is as important as Freud's. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

13210. The Views of Kant and Nietzsche on Truth.

Contrasts Kant's position that some truths are absolute and can be known intuitively with Nietzsche's view that truth is always relative. Also discusses Nietzsche's specific criticisms of Kant on this issue. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

13178. The Skeptical Views of Descartes and Hume.

Written in dialogue form, this paper discusses Descartes' view that the mind is the only certainty and Hume's view that there is no certainty with either the mind or the senses. Concludes that the skeptical approach is useful in making philosophical inquiries. 8 pages, 14 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

13130. Two Ethical Situations: "Lying to Enemies" and "Lying for Good."

Examines these situations from both the Kantian and the utilitarian perspectives. Kant's view is that one should never lie under any circumstance, while the utilitarians argue that lying can be accepted if it increases the general happiness. The paper argues that there are flaws in both views, and suggests that the best approach to morality is one which combines the two views. 10 pages, 17 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

13129. Descartes' Ontological Proof of God.

Examines in detail the French philosopher's proof of the existence of God; shows how Descartes' developed his proof from scholastic and Aristotelian principles of increasing orders of perfection and the reality of ideas. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

13128. Judgement in Descartes.

The role of human judgement, the critical faculty of the mind, in the process of philosophical inquiry is discussed. Judgements' role in Descartes' philosophical method is described, and its connection to such faculties as intuition, reason, experimental verification and systematic inquiry is described. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

13083. Locke and Voltaire.

How the views of these two philosophers were influenced by changes in society and how they, in turn, influenced further changes in society. Includes the decline of monarchy and church power, the rise of scientific reasoning, and the movement toward increased individual freedoms. 10 pages, 31 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

13080. Relationship Abuse.

This paper considers how Plato, Aristotle, Augustine and Kant would respond to this ethical issue. Plato argued that people will do the right thing if they possess rational knowledge, and Aristotle urged people to avoid extremes in behavior. Augustine emphasized the role of God in overcoming sin, and Kant claimed that there is a universal moral law. 11 pages, 29 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

13066. Nietzsche and Freud on Human Nature, Free Will and Women.

Compares Nietzsche and Freud in terms of their philosophical and ethical systems, looking at their general view of human nature, their theories on freedom of the will, and their attitudes toward women. 11 pages, 12 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

13059. Locke and Rousseau on the Political Significance of the Family.

Both philosophers believed that political structures arose from natural family structures. In addition, they both emphasized the importance of the consent of family members, and the role of the family in the education and socialization of children. However, they also both contributed to the sexist views of the time in which women were expected to be submissive to men. 12 pages, 49 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

12715. Utilitarianism as a Theory of Moral Action.

Examines the view that an action is right if it promotes happiness in a greater number of people. Opposing viewpoints are also given, as well as the rebuttals of the utilitarians to these objections. 8 pages, 21 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

12530. Man's Natural State in Rousseau and Freud.

Summary of how two quite different thinkers considered the hypothetical "state of nature." Rousseau the philosopher postulated an individual without family, language or rational thought, which he used to argue that only civilization brought aggression and conflict. Freud the scientist described a world of unhappiness, ruled by the two basic emotions of love and aggression, whose interactions produce increasing civilization and increasing guilt. Conclusion gives points to both. 12p., 33 notes in text, 5b.
  $84
 

12528. "What Is the Ultimate Nature of Reality?" (Descartes and Spinoza).

The first part of the paper is an imaginary dialogue between Descartes and Spinoza, showing their views on the subject. Then, the writer's own perspective is given in response to these views. It is concluded that one substance (God or nature) permeates reality, and that free will exists. 11 pages, 15 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

12522. Is Emotion Answerable to Reason? (Plato v. James).

Shows that both Plato and William James would answer "yes" to this question. Plato says that true reality can only be perceived rationally, and James says that philosophical questions are worthless unless they have pragmatic value. 8 pages, 25 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

12521. Karl Jaspers on Plato.

A look at Plato's dialogues in response to Jaspers' claim that Plato was not seeking final definitions for universal concepts but was trying to develop a language with which one could speak about such concepts. 5 pages, 14 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

12249. Descartes and the Problem of Certain Knowledge of Our Existence.

The author of the paper looks at the problem of clear and certain knowledge in Meditations; reviews the general problem, looks at Descartes' resolution, and evaluates its cogency. 10 pages, 15 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $70
 

12248. Hobbes and Resisting the State.

Essay on the right of the people to resist the state when it threatens them and violated their rights. Looks at the examples of Antigone, Socrates, Thoreau and King in their forms of disobedience. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

12081. "To Penetrate Philosophy Is to Get Lost" (Julian Marias).

Examines how Socrates, Descartes and William James would respond to this quote. Includes a personal reflection on the quote, and concludes that faith helps one to overcome the feeling of being "lost." 5p. 12p. 4b.
  $35
 

12062. The Theories of Warfare of Carl Von Clausewitz and Sun Tzu.

Compares and contrasts the views of Clausewitz (19th Century Prussia) and Sun Tzu (4th Century B.C. China). Also discusses how the two men influenced subsequent military thinkers in the West and East. The "total war" concept of Clausewitz is contrasted with such ideas of Sun Tzu as flexibility, deception, and avoiding war whenever possible. 25 pages, 92 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

12060. Friedrich Nietzsche and Emile Durkheim on the Ideals of Conduct and Social Life.

Shows that both men emphasized the role of the individual in making moral decisions. However, Nietzsche felt that the individual is alone in a struggle against the world, whereas Durkheim saw the individual as being part of a collective consciousness. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

11933. The Rise of Science and the Ideals of the Enlightenment.

This paper traces the religious, philosophical, and scientific origins of the enlightenment. The roles of Newton, Kant, Montesquieu and Voltaire. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

11901. Nietzsche and Foucault on the Origins of Morality.

Closely explores Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals discussing Nietzsche's theories about asceticism, history, and knowledge. Includes Foucault's rephrasing of Nietzsche's theories. 10 pages, 19 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

11722. John Stuart Mill's Theory of Morality.

Explores the moral system outlined by Mill in his 1861 essay "Utilitarianism." Considers how and why Mill founded his moral system on the end result of actions rather than the goodness of agents. KEYWORDS: john stuart mill utilitarianism ethics moral theory. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $35
 

11566. Bentham, Utilitarianism and Society.

Basic summary of Bentham's utilitarian philosophy and the critical view that values other/higher than happiness are somehow ruled out under Utilitarianism. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

11435. Neitzche and j.s. Mill on the Formation of Values.

Summary of the opinions of these two very different philosophers on the basic values that do, or should, underlie modern culture. Covers Neitzsche's concept of the noble barbarian and how his "will to power" was corrupted and conquered by the herd mentality of Christianity; and J.S. Mill's concept of the fundamental nature of liberty and freedom of opinion, and how these lead to every kind of human development. KEYWORDS: Neitzsche Mills term paper liberty values philosophy essay. 15 pages, 26 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $105
 

11434. Two Political Theorists: Hannah Arendt & Max Weber.

This paper compares and contrasts the political theories of Hannah Arendt and Max Weber. Examines their definitions of the political sphere and people's role in politics, the separation/conflict between the political and public spheres, and the role of power in politics. 12 pages, 34 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

11433. More's "Utopia", Kipling's "The Man Who Would Be King" and Conrad's "Lord Jim".

Compares and contrasts ideas of utopia, criticism of governments, and the proper role of the citizen in these three works. 6 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

11314. Castiglione and Machiavelli Compared.

Compares Castiglione's "Book of the Courtier" with Machiavelli's "The Prince" for their tone and ideals. Castiglione is seen as sincere and idealistic, while Machiavelli is a brutal realist with no patience for virtue and delicacy of manners. 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

11238. Hume and Hobbes on Self-Interest.

Compares the 18th century skeptic with the 17th century author of Leviathan for their treatment of self-interest as a motivating force in human behavior. KEYWORDS: david hume thomas hobbes self interest. 7 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

11223. Hamlet and Erasmus' the Praise of Folly.

Compares and contrasts these Renaissance works to evaluate the authors' ethical position on lying. Concludes both works indicate lying may be the only means to a worthwhile end, but that they differ in their opinion of the consequences of lying. 10 pages, 29 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

11205. Four Philosophers on Nuclear Deterrence.

Considers the morality of the threat to use, or actual use of, nuclear weapons for defense of a country. Plato, Aristotle, Locke and Mill are compared for their views on the ultimate standards of political and personal morality. 7 pages, 4 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

11091. Mind and Body in Spinoza.

Examines the Dutch philosopher's views on dualism of mind and body, relating them to his metaphysics of a pantheistic God. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $35
 

11079. Emerson's Early Years: Transcendentalism as Basis for Community.

Analyzes Emerson's Unitarian roots, his resignation from the ministry, and the Harvard Divinity School Address of 1838. Transcendentalism is seen as containing Emerson's view that commitment to community can only be grounded authentically in radical individualism. 12 pages, 20 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

11078. Philosophical Roots of Existentialism: Sartre's Nausea and Nietzsche on Rationality.

Present's Nietzsche's critique of language and rationality. Roquentin is discussed as an illustration of the puzzles Nietzsche poses: the impossibility of rationality to provide self-justification, the hostile meaninglessness of nature, and the relationship between ego and society. KEYWORDS: nietzsche sartre roquentin nausea zarasuthra existentialism rationality meaning of life. 24 pages, 39 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 5,528 words.
  $133
 

11066. David Hume on Soul, Person and Self.

Hume's philosophical views on the soul, the person, self, and selfishness are described. Emphasizes his religious skepticism, critique of causation and will, and view of habit as the guide of human life. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

11065. Mills and Rawls on Liberty and Justice.

Compares the "fairness" theory of the modern political philosopher and ethicist John Rawls with the utilitarianism of John Stuart Mill. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

10621. A Comparison of Three Philosophies on the Pursuit of Self-Interest.

A brief summary of the political opinions of Hegel, Marx and Engels, Nietzsche shows a trend towards limiting the power of the state. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

10613. Machiavelli, Italy, and the Renaissance.

Compares the views of Niccolo Machiavelli on fortune and power with those of earlier Italian humanist like Petrarch and Ficino. Machiavelli is seen as a radical break with the neoclassical spirit, toward a new national patriotism. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

10555. Nietzsche the Immoralist.

A broad survey of Nietzsche's views on language, truth, knowledge and morality. The paper proposes a framework to unify Nietzsche's apparently contradictory insights. 20 pages, 41 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

10530. Mill and Aristotle: A Comparison.

Focuses on these philosophers' views of the relationship between man and the state. A central theme is noted- both philosophers believe happiness is the goal of man -and discussed in terms of virtue, freedom and choice, and the ideal role of the state. 5p., 14f, 4b.
  $35
 

10444. Emerson on Nature.

Ralph Waldo Emerson's philosophy of nature and its relation to the human experience is reviewed, using ideas from his essays on "Nature", "Self-Reliance", "Circles" and other writings. 5 pages, footnotes in text, 1 bibliographic source.
  $35
 

10280. Rousseau's Use of Language.

Rousseau's importance as a stylist and essayist is examined in light of his life and his major writings. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

10266. The Cult of Rationalism.

The paper explores and analyzes the exaggerated respect for rationalism during the European enlightenment of the 17th and 18th centuries. Major philosophers and critics from the Age of Reason, including Leibniz, Descartes, Voltaire, and Rousseau are cited and discussed. KEYWORDS: rationalism deism age of reason enlightenment rousseau descartes voltaire leibniz. Chicago Parenthetical Style. 9 pages, 13 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2167 words.
  $63
 

10182. The Pragmatic Maxim and the Verification Principle (James & Pierce Et Al).

A comarison of the pragmatic maxim of William James, and Charles Pierce with the verification principle of the Logical Positivists Bertrand Russell and A. J. Ayers. Pragmatism's emphasis on results is compared with Positivism's emphasis on linguistic verification of meaning. 11 pages, 19 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

10180. Baron D'holbach: An Exponent of Atheistic Materialism.

Ten page report describing background of d'Holbach, his philosophy and primary contributions to the knowledge of atheistic materialism, the dichotomy of the role of the state in man's efforts, and his role as Encyclopedist and proponent of the early Enlightenment. KEYWORDS: atheistic materialism d'halbach. 11 pages, 23 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

10158. Kierkegaard and the Press.

An analysis of Kierkegaard's ongoing battle with the media of his era and an examination of the validity of his argument that the mass media are inherently vehicles of untruth. Considers the relevance of Kierkegaard's position to modern-day mass media. 10 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

10001. Kierkegaard and Christendom.

An ethical analysis of the Danish existentialist philosopher's position with regard to the Church of Denmark and modern organized religion in general. Focuses on the Attack upon Christendom and selected other works. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

09632. Self-Interest and Ethical Utility.

A criticism of purely self-centered amorality, based on ideas from Kant, Hume and other ethical thinkers. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

09611. Machiavelli's Relevance to Modern Politics.

An essay which argues that Machiavelli's theories are more relevant than ever to the contemporary environment. The essayist applies Machiavelli's cynical realism to a case assessment of the Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and to former President Carter's foreign policy based on "human rights." 11 pages, 9 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

09549. Descartes and Hobbes on the Existence of God.

The ideas and arguments of Hobbes and Descartes on the question of God's existence are analyzed. Argues that Hobbes took the direct and skeptical approach of an unbeliever, while only paying lip service to the forces of religion and state by speaking of God and discussing Christianity as an established reality. 10 pages, 13 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 
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