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13. LINGUISTICS SECTION


HOW TO INTERPRET THE CATALOG ENTRIES:

  • HOW OLD IS MY PAPER? The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written.
  • BOOK REVIEWS: Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
  • PAGE LENGTHS, FOOTNOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES: The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length (NOT including the bibliography or endnote pages), number of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references.

 

18210. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS.

This paper discusses teaching strategies based on the “sheltered instruction” approach, which seeks to balance academic development and language acquisition for English Language Learners (ELLs). Specific methods for engaging students include teacher modeling, the use of “wait time,” building background, grouping, feedback, and vocabulary development. Teachers are encouraged to be familiar with multiple strategies, in order to meet the needs of individual students. KEYWORDS: education teaching English language acquisition. APA Style. 9 pages, 29 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

18025. DANIEL PIGG'S ESSAY ON OROONOKO BY APHRA BEHN.

This paper critically reviews "Trying to Frame the Unframeable," Daniel Pigg's 1997 essay on the seventeenth century novella Oroonoko, and his claim that the title character's use of verbal and non-verbal language "represents a literary approximation of universal language theory." Although some aspects of the essay are found to be noteworthy, Pigg's arguments are for the most part weak, vague, trite, contradictory, and unconvincing. These flaws are attributed to Pigg's use of a superficial "postmodern" approach to literary criticism. KEYWORDS: literature criticism aphra behn oroonoko daniel pigg. Written 2006. MLA Style. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 1,431 words.
  $42
 

17637. THE ‘N-WORD’.

This paper explores the history of the use and meaning of the “n-word” (referring to “nigger” and its variants) from its long association with white racism through more contemporary uses of the term by young Black and African Americans. Argues that the term has an ingrained negativity and that Black and African Americans should avoid using this word to define themselves, and, furthermore, they should only use it when quoting historical texts or when referring to racism in its historical context. KEYWORDS: racism racist terms racist language n-word nigger nigga. Written 2005. MLA Style. 9 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 2,151 words.
  $63
 

17431. THE CONTROVERSY OF THE CONCEPT OF THE “NATIVE SPEAKER”.

Taking a sociolinguistic perspective, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the controversial concept of the native speaker. The competing definitions for the term native speaker and its associated terms (e.g., non-native speaker, native language, mother tongue) are considered in detail. The native speaker/non-native speaker dichotomy and its sociolinguistic implications are examined. The concept of the native speaker is explored further through specific examples, including a look at the role of the native speaker in pidgin and creole and the native speaker concept within the context of the Native English/New Non-Native English dichotomy. KEYWORDS: linguistics nativity language standardization creole Indian English Black English. Written 2005. 19 pages, 64 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources. 4,976 words.
  $133
 

17429. INTERLANGUAGE AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of validity of the term “interlanguage”. Drawing on pertinent examples and illustrations from the linguistics research literature, the paper describes and discusses the possible second language acquisition states and processes at play in the formation of interlanguage. Argues that interlanguage is both a valid and a useful construct in understanding second language acquisition and in providing an important basis for testing linguistic theory. KEYWORDS: linguistics interlanguage second language acquisition language variability. Written 2005. 17 pages, 59 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources. 4,060 words.
  $119
 

17388. COOPERATIVE LEARNING: EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AND LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENT STUDENTS.

This investigation explores the use of cooperative learning methods as a way to help maximize the success of language minority students. Following a brief overview of the definition, theoretical foundation, and significant forms of cooperative learning, the investigation reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on the use of cooperative learning with ESL (English as a Second Language) and LEP (Limited English Proficient) students in both monolingual and bilingual settings. While the majority of research to date has focused on the use of cooperative learning with Spanish/English bilinguals and/or native-Spanish speaking students in U.S. classrooms, studies involving other language-minority subjects suggest that cooperative learning can serve as an effective strategy for maximizing educational outcomes among ESL and LEP students from a broad spectrum of language backgrounds. KEYWORDS: language learning strategies cooperative learning limited english proficient english as second language students esl lep students. Written 2002. APA Style. 13 pages, 35 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 4,115 words.
  $91
 

17357. AMERICAN ENGLISH SLANG.

This paper describes and discusses the meaning and function of slang, and then analyzes its use, derivation, and function in standard American English. Many specific examples are provided. Includes a brief overview of Irving Lewis Allen’s widely accepted social theory of slang. Concludes that while slang terms are generally to be avoided in formal communications, they have a place in American English usage because they enhance the vocabulary and they increase the opportunities for creativity and expression. KEYWORDS: slang colloquial informal language social theory vernacular English American. Written 2005. 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,638 words.
  $49
 

17187. MIDDLE ENGLISH AND THE NORMAN CONQUEST.

Focusing on the Norman Conquest and the two centuries of Norman rule which followed, this paper investigates how English was historically influenced by French. Following a background overview of the Norman Conquest and the general scope of associated linguistic influence, the literature on French influences in English is reviewed and analyzed, focusing on the lexical, phonological, morphological and syntactic changes that ensued as a cause of or in association with two hundred years of Norman domination. The essay considers not only the evidence of the existence of French influences on English but also the process by which that influence took place. Major controversies in the literature regarding the scope of the influence and the most important source of influence are examined. It is concluded that the balance of evidence points to Anglo-Norman versus Continental French as the primary source of language influence. Moreover, it is argued that the evidence demonstrates that the scope of French influences extends well beyond ‘loan words’ or ‘borrowing’. The Norman Conquest of England ultimately led to a merging of languages which transformed English language. KEYWORDS: linguistics middle english anglo-french anglo-norman french language influence normal conquest. Written 2004. LSA Style. 23 pages, 110 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources. 6,326 words.
  $133
 

17175. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION.

This paper discusses and analyzes various aspects of second language acquisition. The first section presents a research design of a study which would test the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis in both its strong and weak versions. The second section compares the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis with the Access to Universal Grammar Hypothesis. The third section discusses similarities and differences between first and second language acquisition. Keywords: linguistics language acquisition theory. Written 2004. 12 pages; 21 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 2,947 words.
  $84
 

17169. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TASKS IN THE INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATIVE CLASSROOM.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the scope, components, and sequencing of the communicative language tasks in the interactive communicative classroom. Following a background discussion of the shift to the communicative language approach and a definition of key terms, the literature on task-based instruction within the communicative framework is surveyed. The implications of the research for teachers and students of language instruction are discussed and summarized. The paper aims at contributing to teachers’ and student-teachers’ understanding of communicative language teaching methodology and at helping to provide a practical framework for the implementation of the task-based approach. Written 2003. 17 pages; 37 footnotes; 24 bibliographic sources. 4,479 words.
  $119
 

17144. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION IN DEAF CHILDREN.

Drawing on theories about how spoken language emerges in hearing children, this paper considers how the deaf child learns sign language. Oliver Sacks’ book, “Seeing Voices: A Journey into the World of the Deaf” is the primary reference used. The analysis demonstrates that Sign Language is a ‘real’ language with distinct structural properties and shows that Sign Language acquisition in the deaf follows the same general pattern as spoken language acquisition in the hearing. Written 2003. 10 pages; 22 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources. 2,307 words.
  $70
 

17132. THE STRONG CONTINUITY HYPOTHESIS IN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the Strong Continuity Hypothesis (SCH) as a solution to the “problem of development” in language acquisition. The strong continuity hypothesis is explicated and then compared and contrasted to the maturation hypothesis as well as to the weak continuity hypothesis. Drawing on research in both first and second language acquisition, the analysis consider the theoretical and empirical support for the strong continuity hypothesis. Written 2003. 12 pages; 36 footnotes; 14 bibliographic sources. 3,762 words.
  $84
 

15803. DOLPHIN COMMUNICATION.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of dolphin communication patterns and systems. The analysis explores the channels of communication used by dolphins, considers the normal environmental limitations on communication related to life in an aquatic versus terrestrial environment, discusses the cognitive and sensory basis of dolphin communication systems, and examines the evidence that dolphins have language. While the focus of the analysis is on intraspecies dolphin communication, the possibility of dolphin-human communication is necessarily also considered in that assessments of dolphin language potential often involve investigations of human-dolphin symbolic interaction. KEYWORDS: animal communications dolphin language intraspecies interspecies communication. 12 pages, 42 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 3,740 words.
  $84
 

15766. DISCOURSE ANALYSIS: THE CULTURAL CONTEXT.

This paper focuses on a particular aspect of the cultural context of discourse: discourses of the Self (e.g., self-identity) and discourses of Other (which label or describe the out-group, discourses representing resistance against or oppression of the other, etc.) among cultural minorities and dominant groups. Through a review of the current literature on the cultural context of discourse analysis, this investigation explores how ethnic/cultural/linguistic minorities define self-identity through discourse; how minorities employ discourse as a strategy of cultural resistance; how dominant groups use discourse to define their own identities and to re-define those of minorities; and how discourses are used as tools of oppression and reinforcers of stereotypes. Five appendices provide detailed examples of linguistic/culturally-specific assessments.KEYWORDS: language culture discourse analysis linquistics communications stereotypes. 15 pages, 41 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources. 5,345 words.
  $105
 

15735. ACCENTS, DIALECTS AND DISCRIMINATION.

This paper discusses the evidence from studies that one's accent or dialect often results in discrimination in housing, employment and education. The problem is discussed in general terms, although emphasis is also placed on how the situation affects Puerto Rican and African-American speakers. 12 pages, 18 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

15643. LANGUAGE SHIFT AND LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE AND IDENTITY.

This investigation examines the variables associated with language shift and language maintenance, and the relationship between language maintenance and cultural identity among language-minority groups in the United States and elsewhere. The review suggests that socioeconomic and pragmatic considerations are paramount in driving language shift, although dominant culture values which stress the ideal of cultural assimilation and by implication, the superiority of the dominant language encourage shift, both directly and indirectly. This review suggests that the language-cultural identity link is not consistent across groups. In some groups, language is intrinsically linked to ethnic culture and the loss of language is associated with a similar loss of other cultural markers. In other groups, however, strong cultural identity is maintained even in the face of the loss of native language. KEYWORDS: language shift linguistics cultural identity languages ethnicity language minorities us. APA Style. 16 pages, 35 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 4,254 words.
  $112
 

15591. STANDARD ENGLISH VERSUS LOCAL DIALECTS IN GREAT BRITAIN.

The debate over whether public discourses should be conducted only in the "Queen's English" shows the relationship that exists between power and language. Using a Marxist and pluralist viewpoint, it is argued that the growing diversity of British society requires more acceptance of local dialects. The African-Caribbean dialect is used to illustrate how dialects are expressive and provide a sense of identity and pride, despite their advantages in the "public" society. 11 pages, 31 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

15442. BILINGUAL CODE SWITCHING.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of bilingual code switching. Following a brief definition of code switching and a discussion of its major variants, the analysis considers the phenomenon of bilingual code switching from both a grammatical/syntactic perspective and a discourse/pragmatic perspective. In terms of the grammatical/syntactic perspective, the analysis will examine where in a discourse code switching is most likely to occur and look at the theoretical literature which examines how bilinguals are able to code switch. In terms of the discourse/pragmatic perspective, the analysis focuses on social and linguistic motivations for code-switching and i.e. why does code-switching occur under what context does it occur? KEYWORDS: linguistics term paper bilingualism bilinguals code-switching dual language use. APA Style. 10 pages, 36 footnotes, 11 bibiliographic references.
  $70
 

15166. EMERGENT LITERACY.

This paper discusses the development of reading and writing skills in early childhood. The roles of oral language, symbolic play, picture books, the use of "metalanguage," and interactive storybook readings are examined. In addition, it is shown that the techniques for teaching literacy to preschoolers can also be helpful in teaching "at-risk" learners in the early grades. 11 pages, 33 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.
  $77
 

15150. PHONICS AND THE USE OF WORD WALLS IN EARLY READING EDUCATION.

Discusses the value of phonics as part of a reading program for young children (preschool through first grade), and the role of word walls to improve memory and increase enthusiasm. Includes suggestions for making and using word walls. 12 pages, 21 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.
  $84
 

15064. LANGUAGE AND CLASS IN ARABIC.

This paper provides a descriptive survey overview of class (as indicated by socioeconomic indicators such as income, occupational category, and education level) differences in Arabic. In an effort to understand and illuminate class differences, the analysis also takes into account how other social indicators (such as urban/rural residency, gender, religious sect, country of residence, etc.) impacts these class distinctions among Arab speakers. The primary purpose of the paper is descriptive. The analysis moves from the general to the particular. The first section outlines the major varieties of Arabic as noted by Arab language scholars and then considers class differences within these varieties. The remaining sections examine more particular aspects of class differences, looking at the use of honorifics and comparisons of within-country class differences in Arabic. KEYWORDS: arabic language term paper class honorifics. APA Style. 13 pages, 43 footnotes, 18 bibliographic references. 4,402 words.
  $91
 

13853. ENGLISH LITERATURE FROM THE OLD ENGLISH PERIOD TO THE 18TH CENTURY.

Covers the main stylistic trends of each period (with an emphasis on poetic styles), and includes illustrative examples from Beowulf and the works of Chaucer, Spenser, Bacon and Pope. 13 pages, 26 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $91
 

13759. COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS: JAPANESE AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES.

Compares and contrasts Japanese and English languages in terms of phonology, syntax, general morphology and differing cultural interferences and influences. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

13616. SIMULTANEOUS BILINGUAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of simultaneous bilingual language development. Following an overview of current theories of bilingualism and second language acquisition as they apply to simultaneous bilingualism and language development, the analysis focuses closely on issues of bilingualism and child developmental issues. To this end, particular attention is devoted to the major contoversies in the bilingual literature: 1) unitary-versus dual-lexicon theories of bilingual development; 2) the period of language differenciation; 3) mixed languages; and 4) code-switching. A concluding section examines the implications of this research on simultaneous bilingualism for the discipline of speech language pathology. 27 pages, 79 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

12691. A DEFENSE OF METAPHOR.

Looks at the function and value of metaphor in poetry and prose, from a philosophical and linguistic standpoint. Aristotle, Aquinas, Boccaccio, Sydney, and Shelley are cited on the meaning of metaphor; modern English literature is seen as taking a self-conscious and ironic view of metaphor. 11 pages, 16 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

12690. HOW LANGUAGES INTERACT ON AN INTERNATIONAL LEVEL.

A paper on how languages influence one another through such things as loan words, bilingualism, "translation loans," and pidginization. Argues that, overall, such influences serve to enrich languages. 7 pages, 31 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

11872. A DISCUSSION OF MUSIC AND LANGUAGE.

An intensive theoretical exploration of the similarities and differences of the two forms. Surveys literature in linguistics and music theory in examining the importance of structure, emotion and meaning in the two forms. 10 pages, 31 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

11871. JAPANESE LANGUAGE AND POWER RELATIONSHIPS.

This paper provides an overview of the Japanese honorific language system, examining the use of language and speaker-listener power relationships, focusing especially on the influence of vertical (hierarchical/ranking) levels and how the speaker's use polite and honorific forms reflects his/her social position in Japanese society. 11 pages, 41 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

11219. THE ACQUISITION OF LANGUAGE.

Analyzes process of language acquisition in infants and children. Defines various stages of language and communication and tole of early childhood education in fostering skill development. 5 pages, 22 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

11074. REVIEW OF S.I. HAYAKAWA'S LANGUAGE IN THOUGHT AND ACTION

Discusses book's premise that the introduction of new technology shapes a culture's thought models and hence a culture's language. As an example, the impact of television is considered. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

10676. DIFFICULTIES IN SHIFTING FROM SPOKEN INDONESIAN TO SPOKEN ENGLISH.

An extensive presentation of the obstacles found when learning to speak a foreign language, including the difficulties of auditory discrimination, sentence structure, gender attribution, pronouns, accent/stress placement, irregular verbs, and the informal grammar of spoken language. 10 pages, 25 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

10670. ACQUISITION OF LANGUAGE IN HUMANS AND CHIMPS.

Interesting paper which compares two views on language acquisition: the "learning" view (associated with B. F. Skinner) and the "innate" view (Chomsky). Language experiments with chimps are discussed, but the paper finds that the inconclusive results shed no light on human language acquisition. 7 pages. 18 footnotes in text, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

10668. A COMPARISON OF INDONESIAN AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES.

Beginning with a brief account of the origin of the national Indonesian language (Bahasa Indonesian), this paper notes the major differences it has with English. Lack of a precise grammatical correspondence (among language categories such as adjectives, verbs, prepositions, and passive voice), stress patterns, and pronunciation are noted. 9 pages, 22 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

10271. AMERICAN ENGLISH SLANG.

Report describes the meaning of slang, its use, derivation, and place in standard American English usage. 7 pages, 7 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

10270. THE LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESS IN CHILDREN.

Report describing development of language skills in children. Traces skill acquisition from cooing and crying in infancy to sentence construction. 12 pages, 24 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

09984. LINGUISTIC STRUCTURE AND THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

Examines the concept of linguistic structure as it has been applied to the English language, tracing its development from the earliest forms of prescriptive grammar to the most recent forms of structural linguistics. Focuses on British English. Argues that modern linguists have developed two fundamentally different perspectives on the English language -- comparative versus structuralism. 22 pages, 41 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

09846. JOHN WILSON'S "LANGUAGE AND THE PURSUIT OF TRUTH".

Summary analysis of Wilson's overview of the study of semantics aimed at the general public. The author argues that the key to solving many of the world's problems lies in better communications, and that this can only be achieved by a true understanding of the meaning in, and truth behind, words and statements. 7 pages, 20 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $49
 

09758. ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE: PREPARING A CURRICULUM AT THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE LEVEL.

A step-by-step guide for ESL curriculum development. Topics covered include: 1) defining the goals of the ESL program; 2) assessing the needs of the ESL learners; 3) determining the cognitive skills that ESL students need to be taught; 4) determining the effective skills ESL students need; 5) selection of instructional materials. Concludes with a detailed lesson plan. KEYWORDS: esl curriculum esl program development teaching english second language students. 12 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

09486. RACE IDENTITY AND NOMENCLATURE.

Investigates the evolution of race appellations for American Blacks, both in terms of dominant (white) group labeling and in terms of self-reference. The shift from "black" to "colored" to "Negro" to "Black" and finally to "African-American" is examined in detail. Considers the social forces involved in these shifts in appellation as well as the social consequences of such changes. 19 pages, 42 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

08101. BLACK ENGLISH.

The validity of Black English as a form of communication is upheld in this study; the merits of bilingualism in Black and Standard English are examined. 4 pages, 7 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $28
 

08085. A SOCIOLINGUISTIC APPROACH TO BILINGUAL EDUCATION.

A book review based on data collected in a case study of a bilingual educational program for Mexican Americans. Background information and issues regarding bilingualism, as well as a critique of the work, are included. 11 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $77
 

08034. LINGUISTIC SEXISM (A COMPARISON OF DEBEAUVOIR & LAKOFF'S WORKS).

A study of linguistic sexism based on Simone de Beauvoir's "The Second Sex" and Robin Lakoff's "Language and Woman's Place" which analyzes the effect of specific words on sexism and the socializing role language plays. 4 pages, 8 footnotes in text, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $28
 

07512. TEACHING METHODS FOR SECOND LANGUAGES.

Solid overview of the problems of teaching a second language. Focuses on controversy between traditionalists and modernists in teaching methods, favoring modern methods emphasizing verbal skills over grammar. Linguistic theory, phonetics and phonemics, benefits of emphasis on oral skills, importance of second language education as cross-cultural exchange. 11 pages, 16 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

07511. THE CONTROVERSY OVER BILINGUAL EDUCATION.

Pros and cons of bilingual education. Arguments against include: high cost, lack of effectiveness, and perpetuation of cultural divisions. Arguments for are the need of students for special assistance, and cultural biases in English-only teaching. concludes that teachers are trying to overcome other sources of bias, that strong cultures perpetuate themselves anyway, and students need English to fully participate in society, therefore favors English education. 5p. )+2p. outline) 0f. 0b.
  $35
 

07509. MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION.

Well-argued overview of the pros and cons of multilingualism in modern America. Includes background, myth of the melting pot and its lack of application today, problems of modern immigrants, need for educational and vocational opportunities for non-English speakers. While giving good summary of arguments against, makes strong case that bilingual ballots and education should be available in order to make good the promise of America democracy. 16 pages, 9 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $112
 

07184. THE VERBAL NOUN FORM IN ENGLISH.

A discussion of the verbal noun suffix "ing" in terms of various theories of descriptive linguistics; phonetics, phonemics, distinctive feature, articulatory phonetics and acoustic phonetics are considered. 13 pages, 11 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $91
 

07158. FORMATION OF AN ARABIC-SPEAKING DAY CARE CENTER.

How and why married Arab students in the Denver area should form a day care center to meet the cultural needs of their children. Good coverage of legal basics and basic facilities and attitudes needed, but does not develop budget before deciding the idea is desirable. 5 pages, 3 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

06792. GROWTH OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AFTER NORMAN CONQUEST.

The sociopolitical impact of the Norman conquest, and the cultural influence of French loan words incorporated into the language, are examined. 5 pages, 4 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

06791. OLD ENGLISH TO MIDDLE ENGLISH.

The losses and retentions of words and structures that took place between old and Middle English are examined pronunciation and elisions are noted. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

06660. BILINGUAL EDUCATION.

The pros and cons of bilingual education are examined in this study of the programs. The history of bilingual education and the theories of linguistic maintenance, social divisiveness and assimilation are reviewed, with the position that bilingual education is here to stay. 8 pages, 9 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

06643. BILINGUAL EDUCATION.

The pros and cons of bilingual education are examined in this study of the programs; the history of bilingual education and the theories of linguistic maintenance, social divisiveness and assimilation are reviewed, with the position that bilingual education is here to stay. 9 pages, 9 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

06546. HOW ENGLISH REALLY WORKS BY JOE E. PIERCE.

A review of Pierce's collection of essays on linguistics, disputing his view that idiomatic expression have no meaning outside of word order and patterns. 6 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source.
  $42
 

06376. STUDENT-FACULTY INFORMAL CONTACT AND COLLEGE PERSISTENCE.

This paper is a report on a study by Ernest T. Pescarella and Patrick T. Terenzini titled "Student-Faculty Informal Contact and College Persistence: A Further Investigation". This work summarizes the authors findings which indicate that there is in fact a partial corralation between persistance/withdrawal decisions and freshman social contact with faculty. This is simply a report, not a critique of the work. 6 pages, 4 footntoes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,385 words.
  $42
 

05901. THE PASSIVE VOICE IN PERSIAN.

A discussion of the passive construction of the verb (I was seen ) in Modern Persian, with reference to Old Persian, Modern English and other IndoEuropean languages. Persian terms are presented in both Romanized and Arabic script. 15 pages, 19 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $105
 

05377. THE SYNTAX OF HAWAIIAN PIDGIN.

A description and analysis of the English-based creole spoken by many inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands, with special attention to its syntactical stricture and the problems of judging the impact of non-English languages upon it. 17 pages, 30 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $119
 

05376. H.L.A. HART, THE CONCEPT OF LAW.

Reviews Hart's linguistic analysis of the elements which define a legal system; redefinition of such concepts as legality, jurisdiction, and validity as found in Hart's model of Positive Law. 9 pages, 22 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $63
 

05375. THREE INTERVIEWS: RETAIL SALES EMPLOYEES.

Three types of sales persons are considered; a telephone sales clerk, an outside commission salesman and a counter clerk. They discuss the advantages and drawbacks of their work, 7p.
  $49
 

05225. PERCEPTION AND LANGUAGE.

See Psychology, Section 20G. lOp., 0 f., 6b.
  $70
 

05181. THE RELATIVE CLAUSE IN CHINESE AND ENGLISH.

A comparison and contrast between the relative clause constructions in the Chinese and English languages is presented. Two types of relative clauses in English are distinguished. In Chinese, on the other hand, it is argued that the relative clause construction is not clearly differentiated from the standard attributive construction. 15 pages, 17 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $105
 

05180. THE RELATIVE CLAUSE.

Linguistic theory and teaching technique are both concerns of this paper. Concludes with a 4 1/2 pp., single spaced, lesson plan. 22 1/2 p. (including lesson plan. Sources cited in text.
  $14
 

05017. PIDGINIZATION AND CREOLIZATION OF LANGUAGES.

A study of the linguistic and social origins of pidgin and creole languages. A central theme is a critique of Bloomfield's classical theory on the question. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

04964. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE IN MODERN GREEK AND ENGLISH.

A comparison of the definite article in Greek, where it is fully declined, and in English where it is invariable. Includes pronunciations and transliterations of the modern Greek articles and a discussion of the syntax of the two languages. 7p., 5f., lb.
  $49
 

04949. ENGLISH AS AN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS LANGUAGE.

The rise of English as the international language of. business is looked at in this paper. The political and linguistic obstacles to the use of one language for international business are assessed, and cultural differences between English and Japanese are seen as quite complex. 9 pages, 5 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

04832. LANGUAGE HABITS IN HUMAN AFFAIRS BY IRVING J. LEE.

The acts of interpretation and communication with language are discussed in this review of a linguistics study. The emphasis is on language as a level of experience and action. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $35
 

04831. AMESLAN, MAGNET BOARDS AND ENGLISH.

A look at the research being done into non-human primate language, asking what such speech tells us about the evolution of human language. Elements of sign language, non-verbal language and cultural transmission in the speech of gorillas and chimpanzees are considered, and the work of Lancaster, Goodall and Dolhinow is reviewed. 12 pages, 0 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

04675. THE ETYMOLOGY AND MEANINGS OF THE WORD PLAY.

Good study based on Huizinga's Play Element in Culture, showing the origin of the word play in the meanings of manual activity and risk-taking, and how these relate to the modern meaning of play including its musical, sexual, and gambling meanings. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

02502. MARRIAGE IN THE U.S.

Basic overview of the topic of marital adjustment problems, including role differences between men and women, noncomplementary behavior (they want different things,) conflicts created by money, status, immaturity or other personality problems. Could be updated. 13 pages, 12 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $91
 

02350. PERCEPTION AND LANGUAGE.

A general discussion of language as a translation of reality. The question of the relation of the sense data to the source of the stimulus is gone into, but language is felt to be a poor means of communicating ideas and understanding. 6p., Of., Ob.
  $42
 

01861. THE WORD "LOVE."

Good etymological study of the origins of the word "love" in Latin, Anglo-Saxon and Old German, with a discussion of its religious and philosophical meanings. 7p., lif., 8b.
  $49
 

01858. THE ETYMOLOGY OF MONEY WORDS.

The origins of English language words relating to money, such as cupidity, fee and mint, are examined. A thorough study of the mythological and cultural roots of "lucre" words and their religious and social significance. 8p., 4f., lOb.
  $56
 

01857. THE ETYMOLOGY OF VENERY.

An interesting study of the origins and meaning of words related to the subject of aphrodisiacs, from early roots in Indo-European languages down through the Middle Ages and into English. Several theories of aphrodisiac powers are advanced. 8p.. 5f.. 10b.
  $56
 

01293. THE ENCODING OF WORDS.

The acquisition of verbal habits and its relation to image-making processes in the mind are looked at. Testing methods of imagery-abstract characteristics are described, and a procedural chart for a slide projection experiment is given, along with test data and results. 8 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

01210. SUPRASEGMENTAL FEATURES OF FRENCH PRONUNCIATION.

This paper provides a technical analysis of French phonology, treating questions of intonation, stress and pitch levels. Studies by Belattre, Nyrop, Gleason and others are referred to, and charts of the segmented syllables and their respective stresses in French pronunciation are given with the text. Graduate level. 11 pages, 4 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

01207. NON-STANDARD SPEECH PATTERNS.

Good presentation of the argument that (Black dialects) non-standard speech patterns are just as regular and just as feasible for communication purposes as regular English, and that schools should be teaching kids how to translate between one pattern and another. 9 pages, 9 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

01154. "EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE" BY LEROI JONES.

The concepts of culture and linguistic dynamics in Jones' essay are reviewed, and the roots of social hierarchies, power and integrity in the black consciousness are related to his theories. 13 pages, 29 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $91
 

00130. THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

The evolution and transformations of the language are traced from the origins of Anglo-Saxon speech through Old, Middle and Modern English. Ihe importance of loan words and semantic shading in English are emphasized. 9p., l4f., 8b.
  $63
 

00004. BERKELEY RESEARCH.

Berkeley Research, home of Academic Term Papers and Academic Research Papers, offers the Web's largest selection of research papers (more than 30,000) at the lowest price. We also feature quality custom papers written to your specifications. Visit our websites at: http:www.academicresearchpapers.com or http://www.academictermpapers.com. Telephone toll-free 1-800-777-7901. From outside the U.S. and Canada call 1-415-586-3900. DO NOT CLICK "ORDER" FOR THIS ENTRY!!
  $7
 

00003. BERKELEY RESEARCH TERM PAPERS.

Berkeley Research Term Papers, home of Academic Term Papers and Academic Research Papers, offers the Web's largest selection of research papers (more than 30,000) at the lowest price. We also feature quality custom papers written to your specifications. Visit our websites at: http:www.academicresearchpapers.com or http://www.academictermpapers.com. Telephone toll-free 1-800-777-7901. From outside the U.S. and Canada call 1-415-586-3900. DO NOT CLICK “ORDER” FOR THIS ENTRY!!
  $7
 

53908. CASSIRER ON LANGUAGE: MAN THE SYMBOL-MAKER.

Very sophisticated, very philosophical study of Ernst Cassirer and his studies of language, symbolism and culture; emphasizes Cassirer's relation to famous philosophers such as Liebniz and Kant. 18 pages, 24 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $126
 

53864. DIALECTS OF ENGLISH IN THE U.S.

The development of lingistic variations in America is given an historical perspective, and the division of sub-dialects throughout the country described. 5 pages, 3 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

53790A. AMERICAN INDIAN LANGUAGES.

An analysis of the linguistic development of Indian languages, from the time of the migrations through North and South America to the present day. Problems of relating American to Asian language groups are examined, and environmental and cultural influences on such languages as the Hopi and Navaho dialects are considered. 16 pages, 19 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.
  $112
 

53788A. AMERICAN ENGLISH.

The differences between American and British English are explored including Africanisms, Regional variations, and future in American speech. Some American writers are seen as reverting to older forms of English, with more open ended forms of prose and greater integration of new forms. 12 pages, 16 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

53571. ARABIC AND ENGLISH.

A comparison between the two languages in terms of descriptive lingiustics, root structures, vernacular, and other aspects of grammatical structure. The importance of communication of reality perceptions is stressed. 8 pages, 8 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

53226. THE HISTORY OF THE TERMINOLOGY OF METAL CASTING.

A study of the linguistic history of metal casting nomenclature, from early times down to Modern English. A detailed description of the terms and their technical meanings is given, and the etymological roots of each term examined. lOp., 17f., 8b.
  $70
 

53171. PSYCHOLOGICAL SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN CANADIAN AND SOUTHWESTERN AMERICAN BILINGUALS.

Very good, technical examination of how bilingualism affects French Canadians and Southwestern Chicanos; through discussion of problems of definition, cultural influences; finds that attitudes are significant and that economic progress would help Chicano kids learn English. llp., 16f., 12b.
  $77
 

53130. THE ENGLISH VERB.

A linguistic study of the time function of reguiar and progressive conjugations in declarative sentences. The variety of time functions in the various tenses is related to the complexities of current and past actions in the language. 7p., 9f., Sb.
  $49
 

53077. OTHELLO'S LINGUISTIC DISINTEGRATION.

The thesis is advanced that Othello's emotional breakdown is analogous to his linguistic breakdown; the patterns of his speech and their emotional tone are studied for evidence of his nobility and subsequent fall from the heights. Syntax and allusions are examined for references to Desdemona. 8 pages, 18 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $56
 

53076. LINGUISTIC PATTERNS IN DAVID COPPERFIELD (CHARLES DICKENS).

The speech patterns and sentence structures of Charles Dicken's novel are examined in detail; dialect and syntax are seen as an expression of personality and social class. 9 pages, 0 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $49
 

52971. CULTURE OF THE ZUNI TRIBE.

An examination of the culture of this Southwest Indian tribe, which criticizes R. Benedict's famous description of their "Apollonian" (moderate) ethics by pointing out that aggressive tendencies are expressed in a number of ritual practices. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

52755A. A PHONOLOGICAL COMPARISON BETWEEN SPANISH AND ENGLISH.

A linguistic analysis of the vowels, consonants and problems of pronunciation, with an interesting treatment of syntax and articuIation in typical sentences of both languages. 7 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

52627. THE ORIGINS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

A scholarly account of the development of English since before the Roman empire. 5p., Of., 3b.
  $35
 

52627A. BLACK ENGLISH.

This study traces the historical development of Black English from its African origins. The characteristics of such offshoots as the Gullah and Creole dialects is discussed, and the survival of Black English is seen as an assimilation process. 6 pages, 4 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

52569. PART OF SPEECH IN THE DEEP STRUCTURE.

A linguistic analysis of the parts of speech, from the viewpoint of the transformational grammarians such as Chomsky and Lyons. The distinction between deep and surface structures and the meaning of traditional parts of speech in the modern context are discussed thoroughly. llp.; lOf.; 3b.
  $77
 

52277. READINGS IN APPLIED ENGLISH LINGUISTICS BY HAROLD ALLEN.

A review of a book of readings on the historical background geography, usage, teaching and literary applications of the applications of linguistics. Standards of usage and the search for meaning in language are discussed, and numerous articles and texts cited in the course of the discussion. lOp.; Of.; Ob.
  $70
 

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