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7D. ECONOMIC THEORY


HOW TO INTERPRET THE CATALOG ENTRIES:

  • HOW OLD IS MY PAPER? The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written.
  • BOOK REVIEWS: Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
  • PAGE LENGTHS, FOOTNOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES: The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length (NOT including the bibliography or endnote pages), number of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references.

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19286. Marx and Historical Materialism.

Developed by Karl Marx, historical materialism offers a method for analyzing changes in economic systems. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Marx’s influential socioeconomic theory. The analysis focuses on the key concepts of the social relations of production and the forces of production that in combination explain the development of the division of labor through history up until the rise of capitalism. MLA Style. 6 pages, 6 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 1,551 words.

TAGS: Karl Marx, Marxism, socioeconomic theory, historical materialism, division of labor.

  $42
 

18674. Oil Prices: Supply and Demand.

This paper is primarily concerned with the views in an article entitled “Oil Price History and Analysis,” obtained from WTRG Electronics (online). The article examines how the economic concepts of supply and demand are related to equilibrium prices and quantities of oil. Historical examples show that there are some cases in which oil prices do not follow the laws of supply and demand. These cases involve disruptions in the global supply of oil (which are caused by such things as wars and embargos). KEYWORDS: economics oil prices historical pricing. MLA Style. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,443 words.
  $42
 

18229. The Feudal System in Medieval Europe.

This paper discusses the factors giving rise to feudalism in the eighth century, the social and economic structure of the system, how it differed from present-day capitalism, and the causes of its decline in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. KEYWORDS: history Europe medieval feudalism. MLA Style. 7 pages, 24 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

18105. The Dollar, the Pound, the Euro, and the Yen.

This paper discusses the relative value and performance of these four major currencies (as of 2006), and examines the possible reasons for changes in their relative value over time. Based on their recent performance, no drastic changes are expected in the relative value of the currencies in the upcoming future. The paper includes a chart that compares the relative values of the currencies from May 2004 to May 2006. KEYWORDS: international economics currencies U.S. dollar British pound European Union euro Japanese yen. MLA Style. 11 pages, 31 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,640 words.
  $77
 

18085. African Development Failures.

This paper examines the reasons why the Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) of the IMF and World Bank have been unsuccessful in helping sub-Saharan African nations attain economic development and globalization. The policies of the SAPs are compared with those of the successful "Newly Industrialized Countries" (NICs) of East Asia (particularly, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore). The role of the state in development efforts is also considered. It is concluded that it is possible to develop a market-oriented approach to development that at the same time works toward the alleviation of poverty and economic inequalities. KEYWORDS: economic development failure sub-saharan africa international financial institutions globalization IMF world bank structural adjustment policies africa newly industrialized countries east asia. MLA Style. 15 pages, 32 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 3,654 words.
  $105
 

18044. “Material Concerns” by Tim Jackson.

This paper reviews Jackson's book on how to protect the environment without undermining the existing economic system. Jackson's proposed solutions include the use of "preventive environmental management" and a shift to a "service economy." The book also addresses the extreme challenges that will need to be faced in making the proposed changes. Yet, such changes are necessary because of the threat of industrial pollution to life on the planet. It is argued that Jackson's book makes an important contribution because it encourages dialogue on the issue and it provides insights into the material and psychological changes that will need to be made. KEYWORDS: book review environment economics management environment. MLA Style. 7 pages, 12 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,707 words.
  $49
 

18030. Problem of High Oil Prices.

This paper addresses the fact that oil prices have been increasing at a dramatic rate in recent years. Taking an economic perspective on the topic, it is noted that the classic laws of supply and demand are not adequate for explaining the situation. This is basically because oil is a product of low price elasticity. It is a necessity and thus demand does not decline with a rise in prices. In addition, because of supply disruptions, there has not been an increase in supply despite the incentive of higher prices. The paper also considers the roles of OPEC and market investors in inflating oil prices. KEYWORDS: economics supply and demand oil prices oil pricing. MLA Style. 6 pages, 13 footnotes in text, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

17762. Grassroots Assistance in Rural China: Case Study.

This paper analyzes and provides a solution to a case concerning a Grants-in-Aid grassroots project assistance for two villages in Dan Feng County, a poor rural county in China’s Shaanxi Province. The grassroots development project focused on the construction of three schools, three local health centers, two bridges, and 46 water resource facilities over the course of one year within a budget of $87,000. The analysis considers the reasons behind the success of the project, discusses the benefits the project at the local level, considers the key factors/persons contributing to the project’s success, and the factors related to the project evaluation. KEYWORDS: rural china development grassroots case studies education health water villager empowerment ngo project evaluation term paper case solution. APA Style. 10 pages, 5 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,667 words.
  $70
 

17584. Oil Prices.

This paper analyzes how oil prices are related to the law of supply and demand. While the law of supply and demand says that higher prices will decrease demand for a particular commodity and create an incentive for producers to increase their supplies, these rules have not applied to oil prices in the 2000s. Notable in 2005 was the fact that despite high oil prices, demand remained strong. The concluding section explores the possibilities/difficulties in developing alternative fuels. KEYWORDS: oil prices oil supply demand alternative fuel. MLA Style. 7 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,667 words.
  $49
 

17382. International Political Economy (Ipe) and Globalization.

As a discipline, IPE encompasses several theories derived from three main conceptualizations or ideologies: mercantilism, liberalism, and Marxism. This paper compares and contrasts the three main conceptions of IPE. Following the general comparative overview of the three conceptions, the analysis considers how advocates of each view would assess the phenomenon of globalization. A final section of the analysis uses the IPE lens (and hegemonic stability theory in particular) to consider the merits and dangers of “hegemonic stability” in international trade. Turabian Style. 25 pages, 48 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 6,192 words.
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TAGS: international political theory political ideology political theory mercantilism liberalism marxism hegemonic stability globalization.

  $133
 

17224. Zimbabwe and the Legacy of Colonialism.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of Zimbabwe’s modern-day economic, political and social problems, as described in newspaper accounts. These problems are then related to the legacy of European imperialism and colonial rule. That legacy included such things as white seizure of farmlands, segregationist treatment of the indigenous population, and the failure to provide a smooth transition to democracy during the nation’s independence movement. Keywords: Africa Colonialism legacy contemporary problems segregation Zimbabwe Rhodesia. 10 pages; 14 footnotes; 12 bibliographic sources. 2,226 words.
  $70
 

17209. The Failed Promise of Mergers and Takeovers.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the finding that mergers and takeovers seldom produce the improvements in performance which their advocates suggest. The analysis identifies and considers the strengths and limitations of the performance measures used to judge the effectiveness of mergers and takeovers. The investigation considers the major reasons why mergers and takeovers do not produce their expected improvements in performance. Finally, the analysis considers some of the actions that managers can take to improve the likely success of mergers and takeovers. KEYWORDS: mergers acquisitions hostile takeovers organizational culture clash success failure M&A. 17 pages, 47 footnotes, 32 bibliographic sources. 4,544 words.
  $119
 

17164. American Mass Consumerism, 1880-1940.

This essay examines and analyzes the key characteristics of American mass consumerism during the period 1880-1940 and considers how this mass consumerism differed from other modes of consumption before the Second World War. The investigation looks at the social, political, and economic aspects of American mass consumerism during this period and considers some of the ways in which consumption patterns and responses were affected by class, race, and most especially, gender. It is argued that American mass consumerism during this period was fused into a political ideology supporting consumerism that helped to foster a belief in mass consumerism as a part of the “American way of life.” 16 pages; 42 footnotes; 17 bibliographic sources. 4,823 words.
  $112
 

17148. Total Quality Management (Tqm) and Organizational Change.

This paper looks at the connection between Total Quality Management (TQM) and organizational change in contemporary management practice. The paper begins with a discussion of the definition and history of TQM (including the recent TQM comeback) and an overview of the types of organizations using TQM. It is argued that widespread organizational change has always been an underlying assumption of the TQM process. When successfully implemented, TQM can help companies adapt to rapidly changing environments and serve as a facilitator for more radical internal changes (such as those related to reengineering) as well as an enabling factor in the development of a climate of sustainable continuous improvement and innovation. Keywords: change quality reengineering management. 15 pages; 62 footnotes; 28 bibliographic sources. 4,163 words.
  $105
 

17106. Diet and Health in English Industrial Revolution.

Looking specifically at dietary consumption patterns and dietary-related changes in health in the period preceding and during the industrial revolution, this paper investigates the impact of the industrial revolution in England on people’s diet and overall health. Examines differences in nutritional status and dietary consumption patterns among the various social/economic classes and between urban and rural populations; considers negative as well as positive transformations in diet and health during the period; looks at physical evidence of the diet-related health changes, such as rates of rickets and scurvy and changes in height; and examines non-economic (e.g., consumer preference, food adulteration) as well as economic reasons for the changes. KEYWORDS: industrial revolution diet nutrition dietary factors human health history. APA Style. 20 pages; 34 footnotes; 14 bibliographic sources. 5,003 words.
  $133
 

17056. Should E-Commerce Be Self-Regulated or Regulated by Governments?

This paper addresses the question of whether or not Internet businesses should be self-regulated in accordance with the free market and “invisible hand” concepts of Adam Smith. It is argued that with limited exceptions (e.g., to protect consumers and children), the free market approach is more appropriate than its alternatives. Keywords: Internet regulation commerce. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

17036. The Wage Gap Between Skilled and Unskilled Workers.

This paper argues that the skilled/unskilled wage gap has increased as a result of the forces of globalization. For example, the use of cheap labor in poorer countries drives wages down for unskilled workers in developed countries. References are made to the Stolper-Samuelson theorem, the arguments regarding the use of a minimum wage, and other proposed solutions to the problem. Keywords: wages income disparity globalization. 5 pages; 22 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

17035. The Wage Gap Between Skilled and Unskilled Workers.

This paper argues that the skilled/unskilled wage gap has increased as a result of the forces of globalization. For example, the use of cheap labor in poorer countries drives wages down for unskilled workers in developed countries. References are made to the Stolper-Samuelson theorem, the arguments regarding the use of a minimum wage, and other proposed solutions to the problem. Keywords: wages income disparity globalization. 6 pages; 22 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

17034. The History of Money.

This paper discusses the evolution of money as a medium of exchange, looking at how “new money” is created, and exploring the theories regarding the role of the money supply in causing inflation. The differing views of monetarists and Keynesian economists on this topic are also included. Keywords: money monetary theory economic theory inflation history. 6 pages; 22 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

17033. The Analysis of Demand and Supply Factors in Real-Life Situations (Book Review).

This paper examines six research articles on demand and supply issues in such field as education, agriculture, hospitality and law enforcement. The information in the articles is compared with the theoretical models contained in the text “Economics Today” by R.L. Miller. It is then argued that theoretical models need to be adopted before they can be applied to understanding real-life cases. Keywords: economic theory demand supply applied economics. 17 pages; 5 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources.
  $119
 

15938. Inflation.

This paper discusses the various causes of inflation, the fluctuation in inflation rates over the years, how inflation is measured, who benefits and who gets hurt by inflation, and how individuals can protect themselves from its negative effects. 6 pages; 27 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

15915. Demand and Supply Curves.

This paper explains demand and supply curves and examines the factors that cause shifts in these curves. Also, the significance of the equilibrium price is discussed. 7 pages; 27 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

15889. The Effects of Colonialism in the Caribbean.

This paper critically examines the impact of colonialism in the Caribbean, arguing that although colonialism brought some benefits, it mostly had a damaging impact. Notably, colonialism in the region caused the destruction of indigenous populations, limited future economic development, created a social underclass, resulted in fragmentation among the islands, and contributed to the region’s underdevelopment in the present day. 6 pages; 24 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

15854. Brazil's Gold Rush.

This paper discusses the changes in population and settlement patterns resulting from the discovery of gold in Brazil in 1693. As such, Brazil's gold rush demonstrates the role played by economic factors in the development of migratory patterns. KEYWORDS: Brazilian history gold rush Brazil 17th. 22 pages; 84 footnotes; 20 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

15843. "The Art of the Commonplace" by Wendell Berry (Book Review).

This paper presents a review and critique of this compilation of "agrarian essays" in which the author advocates a simple, agrarian way of life that rejects the exploitation of large-scale agribusiness concerns. This critical review includes a questioning of the extent to which it is necessary to reject technology and the urban way of life, as argued by the author. 7 pages; 10 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.
  $49
 

15834. Critical Examination of Weber's Main Thesis in "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism".

This paper examines Max Weber's thesis regarding the influence of Protestantism on the development of capitalism and its unique "spirit." It is argued that there is a lack of evidence to support this thesis. Furthermore, alternative explanations exist for the rise of modern capitalism and its "sprit." 12 pages; 30 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources. 2,681 words.
  $84
 

15815. Women and Poverty in Great Britain.

This paper is concerned with the problem of inequality and the fact that women are more likely than men to live in poverty in Great Britain. Examines the evidence regarding the causes of the problem, and makes recommendations for alleviating it. 7 pages; 21 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources. 1,953 words.
  $49
 

15747. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Max Weber).

A summary of Chapters 2, 3, 4a and 5, covering Weber's perspective on such things as the connection between Protestant asceticism and the "spirit" of capitalism, the role of entrepreneurs, the Protestant "calling," and the influence of Calvinism. 14 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source.
  $98
 

15720. Statistical Studies and the Minimum Wage Issue.

Some studies indicate that increases in the minimum wage reduce employment rates; this paper argues that such papers usually contain "hidden biases" or methodological flaws. In fact, although some questions on the issue remain, carefully controlled studies have not shown a decrease in employment rates when the minimum wage has been increased. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

15718. Culture and Development in the 20th Century.

This paper discusses the role played by culture in economic and political development, and in such things as local resistance, views on human rights, the influence of religion, and gender inequalities. It is argued that all of these factors are interconnected and that there is a need to work on all of them in order for development to be attained. 12 pages, 40 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

15692. Sustainable Competitive Advantage (Sca) Strategies.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the concept of sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) and a discussion of the difference between SCA and a cluster of SCA strategies. Defines sustainable competitive advantage and outlines the history and scope of the concept. Discusses a range of SCA strategies based on generic strategies, the resources-based model, the competencies/capabilities-based model, and the more recent model which stresses the overwhelming importance of human resources and organizational learning and adaptation. KEYWORDS: sustainable competitive advantage organizational strategy marketing strategies. APA Style. 8 pages, 31 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 2,539 words.
  $56
 

15690. China and India Face the Challenges of Globalization.

Focusing on the past seven years (1993-2001), this paper compares and contrasts China's and India's main economic strengths and weaknesses, progress in economic reform, and problems and challenges of globalization each country faces in their drive to become modern, high performing members of the global economy. Compares the two countries in the context of the history of their economic reform programs, motivation for embarking on reform, ideology of reform, structure of reform, and overall results of reform. Concludes that China has thus far been more successful at reform and at integrating with the global economy, but cautions that China still faces the most difficult phase of its reform. TAGS: China India economic reform globalization chinese indian economy global integration international political economy. 17 pages, 41 footnotes, 30 bibliographic sources.
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  $119
 

15675. Economic Development in India.

This paper presents a brief overview and analysis of economic growth and development in India over the past four decades. Encompassing an overview of India's political/economic history and a summary of current economic conditions, the analysis considers the sources of growth, the resources for growth, the process of economic growth and structural change as it has occurred in India, and the relationship between human capital and economic development in India. The extent to which economic models - specifically the Harrod-Domar and Lewis's dual sector model of development ("trickle down") explain the pattern found in India is considered. A concluding section considers India's prospects for future growth. 19 pages, 31 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

15666. Local Government in Economic Development: Western Europe vs. North America.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the factors contributing to the historic differences between Western Europe (both as independent nations and as the European Union) and North America (the U.S. and Canada) in the involvement of local government in economic development. The analysis begins with an overview of locally-based economic development and regional policy in the two regions. Following this, the analysis considers some of the specific factors which have contributed to the differences in these two regions' approach to local economic development, considering in particular structural issues (e.g., political-legal structure, population, urban structure, etc.), regional policy objectives, and differences in labor mobility. It will be argued that the European-North American differences in local economic development programs and general approach to regional policy have both been unintentionally shaped by forces related to geography, demography, structure of government and the weight of history, and have been deliberately shaped by each region's formal or defacto regional policy objectives. KEYWORDS: local economic development regional economics local economies governments. 13 pages, 27 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 4,763 words.
  $91
 

15665. Regional Unemployment in Europe & Uk.

In terms of finding a solution to the problem of regional unemployment, one school of thought holds that, "The basic cause of local or regional concentrations of unemployment must be a lack of sufficient jobs, and the answer is thus essentially to create more jobs." This essay critically analyzes and discusses that assertion with respect to the situation in the UK and throughout Europe. The paper argues that while the assertion is over-simplified and lacking in specificity critical to solving the problem of regional unemployment disparity, it is rooted in truth. The underlying veracity of the statement is made evident through an examination of the specific causes of regional unemployment and by looking at the results of various efforts to reduce regional unemployment disparities. The essay argues that solutions to the problem will require job-creating strategies specifically targeted to the locality and the category of effected workers, particularly the most vulnerable manual laborers and less skilled female workers. KEYWORDS: european unemployment regional employment uk unemployed regional disparities employment. 12 pages, 35 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 3,243 words.
  $84
 

15653. Long-Term Competitive Advantage & Globalization.

This essay analyzes Alfred Chandler's views (as expressed in his 1990 book, Scale and Scope) on managerial enterprise and international comparative advantage with a view towards assessing its relevance and validity for contemporary economic, market, and organizational structures. Considers whether Chandler's views on managerial enterprise rely too heavily on the U.S. ideal to adequately explain the long-term comparative success of nations and their industries. Argues that while Chandler's (1990) historical analysis provides an excellent explanation of the rise of the modern industrial organization and the factors of comparative success from the emergence of the organization in the late 19th Century up until World War II, changes in the global economic structure and concomitant profound shifts in the international competitive environment render much of Chandler's analysis inapplicable to an understanding of contemporary factors in comparative success. 17 pages, 26 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.
  $119
 

15610. Regional Disparities and Infrastructure Investment in the Eu.

This paper discusses and critically evaluates the assertion that: "Public infrastructure investment by the European Union [EU] does little to improve cohesion: such investment tends to assist economic development in richer regions relative to those that are poorer." Drawing on examples from studies examining the actual and/or projected regional impacts of various infrastructure projects, it will be argued that the assertion that infrastructure investment does little to improve cohesion is overly simplistic. While it is true that there appears to be a natural bias for such investment to assist economic development in richer versus poorer regions, and although it is also true that in some specific cases regions in the periphery have experienced disproportionately adverse impact as a consequence of investment in some supranational infrastructure projects, it is argued that under the proper circumstances, infrastructure investment can serve as a force for economic and social cohesion and as a tool for reducing inter-regional economic disparities. 14 pages, 33 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.

TAGS: EU European Union, supranational organization, infrastructure investment, economic unity, regional disparities, research paper

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  $98
 

15575. The Role of Human Motivation in Economics.

This paper examines the views of three economic theorists, as well as the plausibility of their respective views. Adam Smith saw self-interest as a positive force; Karl Marx claimed that the selfish motives of capitalists result in the exploitation of workers; and the feminist Charlotte Perkins Gillman emphasized the idea that women are exploited by marriage relationships. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

15574. The Role of Human Motivation in Economics.

This paper examines the views of three economic theorists, as well as the plausibility of their respective views. Adam Smith saw self-interest as a positive force; Karl Marx claimed that the selfish motives of capitalists result in the exploitation of workers; and the feminist Charlotte Perkins Gillman emphasized the idea that women are exploited by marriage relationships. 10 pages, 19 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

15243. Entrepreneurial Decision Making.

This paper reviews the scholarly literature on entrepreneurial decision-making, focusing on the characteristics and strategies of successful entrepreneurs. The investigation explores the specific character of entrepreneurial decision-making, looking closely at the successful entrepreneur's approach to risk and to environmental opportunities and threats. 12 pages, 37 footnotes, 18 bibliographic references.
  $84
 

15199. The Class Structuring of Capitalist Societies.

Economic changes in the 20th century resulted in the world becoming more "multicultural" than before. According to some theorists, these changes have caused the concept of class to decline in significance; however, it is argued that this is an overly optimistic view, based on a limited definition of "class." By contrast, other writers, particularly in Britain, have argued that class inequalities have become strengthened rather than weakened. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.
  $49
 

15198. Nicos Poulantzas and Heidi Hartmann on Class Structuring in Contemporary Capitalist Society.

Both theorists follow a Marxist orientation, but they differ from one another because of Poulantzas' structuralism and Hartmann's feminism. Poulantzas expanded and clarified Marxist class theory by adding new categories and definitions; Hartmann argues that the patriarchial exploitation of women goes beyond class distinctions and that it has its locus in the family and housework. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.
  $42
 

15196. The Class Structuring of Capitalist Societies.

Economic changes in the 20th century resulted in the world becoming more "multicultural" than before. According to some theorists, these changes have caused the concept of class to decline in significance; however, it is argued that this is an overly optimistic view, based on a limited definition of "class." By contrast, other writers, particularly in Britain, have argued that class inequalities have become strengthened rather than weakened. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.
  $42
 

15181. The Ford Motor Company and Mass Production.

A paper on the social and economic impacts of Ford's assembly line, first implemented in 1914. For example, other businesses adopted similar methods for increased productivity, more consumers bought cars, and Ford used some of its profits to improve wages and work conditions. 7 pages, 22 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.
  $42
 

15161. The Dominant Discourse of Development Anthropology.

In a 1991 article, Arturo Escobar argued that development anthropology is still dependent on a post-World War II discourse that supports an imperialistic Western-based world-view. This paper examines Escobar's views on this subject, as well as the views of some of his critics. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.
  $70
 

15141. Famine: Causes and Cures.

Provides an analysis of the causes of famine, looking at the two main types of hunger found in the modern era: 1) extreme but temporary famines; and 2) chronic hunger and undernourishment. Sen's theory of entitlements is used to explain both types of hunger and to make the argument that economic and political circumstances curtail individual's ability to acquire enough food. Draws on specific examples, including the Bengal famine of 1943 and the cases of Brazil and Sri Lanka to illustrate chronic hunger. Argues that famine and chronic hunger can be prevented by addressing entitlement failures as their source, reducing economic inequities, and fostering a climate of participatory democracy. Successful hunger prevention programs in specific African and Asian countries are noted. 13 pages, 33 footnotes.
  $91
 

15100. Anthropology’S Contributions to Development Policy.

This paper explores what contributions the discipline of anthropology can make to development policy and practice. The essay argues that anthropology in general and specific anthropological findings can and should inform both policymakers and the public in general about the course that economic development policy should take. The paper examines the difficult and problematical aspects of the relationship between anthropology and economic development and concludes with an examination of the limits that block a complete scientific understanding and guidance of the development process. KEYWORDS: anthropology economic development policy. Chicago Parenthetical Style. 10 pages, footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

15076. Portugal in the Slave & Spice Trades.

Why did Portugal, pioneering founder and unequivocal European leader of the spice and slave trades through the sixteenth century, drop to the margins of these trades in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? That is the central question under investigation in this comparative study of the European-Asian spice trade and Atlantic slave trade of the 15th-18th Centuries. The analysis looks at the major reasons for the decline and eventual diminution of the Portuguese role in these two major trades, considering political, organizational, cultural, economic, competitive and other factors. KEYWORDS: portugal history economic decline spice trade slave trade. APA Style. 14 pages, 40 footnotes, 17 bibliographic references. 5,421 words.
  $98
 

15073. The Significance of the African Slave Trade to Economic Development in the European Maritime Nations, 1440-1860.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the economic impact of the transatlantic slave trade on the major European slave-trading nations. Argues that despite huge losses and inefficiencies, the major European slave traders of the 17th and 18th Centuries (Dutch, British, French) benefited economically from the trade in terms of increased exports, improvements in the shipping industry, the slave labor efficiencies of the plantation economies in the colonies, and the stimulation of development and innovation within certain industries. The effect is most dramatic for Great Britain. KEYWORDS: colonial powers slave trade history economic development commerce slaves britain france netherlands portugal. APA Style. 15 pages, 45 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references. 5,216 words.
  $105
 

15071. Population and the Future of the Planet.

This essay explores the larger patterns of the past 300-400 years of global ecological history to assess the relative virtue of pessimistic/Malthusian and optimistic/Boserupian prospects for the future human condition. The paper focuses on the issues of energy, population and environmental consciousness. KEYWORDS: human population Malthus over-population explosion ecology population term paper. APA Style. 14 pages, 37 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 3,865 words.
  $98
 

15051. The Role of Railroads in the Development of Illinois.

Historical overview of the use of railroads in the state, showing how they contributed to economic development, population growth, and the creation of new towns. In particular, the city of Chicago benefited by becoming a meeting point for the rail lines of the region. 14 pages, 42 footnotes, 11 bibliographic reference.
  $98
 

15034. Global Warming and Industrialization.

Discusses the scientific evidence that there is a link between industrial pollution and the "greenhouse effect," as well as the controversy over the extent of the seriousness of the problem. 12 pages, 35 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.
  $84
 

14905. Case Analysis: Grassroots Assistance in Rural China.

This paper provides an analysis of a case concerning a Japanese Grants-in-Aid grassroots project assistance for two villages in Dan feng County, an impoverished rural county in China’s Shaanxi Province. The project has a budget of $87,000 and involved the construction of three schools, three local health centers, two bridges, and 46 water resource facilities over the course of one year. The analysis considers whether or not the project is a success (and why), specifies the benefits the project provides at the local level, considers the key factors/persons contributing to the project’s success, and factors related to the project evaluation. It is argued that the project has been remarkably successful. KEYWORDS: rural china development grassroots education health water villager empowerment ngo project evaluation. APA Style. 10 pages, 5 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,652 words.
  $70
 

14036. American Airlines and Oligopoly.

Although the company has features of the monopolistic and competitive models, this paper argues that American Airlines is primarily oligopolistic in its practices. Topics covered include economies of scale, strategic alliances, the “hub-and-spoke” airport system, non-price competition, and accusations that the company has used “predatory pricing” to undermine smaller competitors. 10 pages, 20 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.
  $70
 

14010. The Industrial Revolution.

This paper notes the success stories of the Industrial Revolution, but emphasizes the idea that it led to greater economic inequalities and thus caused many people to suffer the hardships of poverty. The paper also looks at the role played by urbanization in contributing to this problem. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.
  $49
 

13988. European Industrial Revolution & Ottoman Empire.

An analysis of the impact of the European Industrial Revolution on the Ottoman Empire, focusing on the 19th century and the economic impacts of industrialization. Considers changes in trade patterns, capital investment, mechanization, and transfer of technology. Illuminates the importance of the internal market in the Ottoman economy during this period. KEYWORDS: industrial revolution ottoman empire term paper. APA Style. 15 pages, 28 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references. 3,739 words.
  $105
 

13963. Fordism and the Search for a Viable "Post-Fordism."

An essay which examines the possibility that modern industrial economies have moved from a "Fordist" (i.e., mass-market oriented) to a "Post Fordist" kind of work organization based on individualized marketing and flexible, highly specialized production techniques. Defines Fordism, contrasting it with the ideal of the post-Fordist era as typified by the new Internet economies. Concludes that while the modern industrialized economies are moving towards the Post-Fordist paradigm, Fordism has not yet been supplanted. 10 pages, 11 foonotes; 7 bibliographic references.
  $70
 

13888. Productivity in Centrally Planned Economies.

Considers the scope of and reasons behind the "productivity failure" in centrally planned economies such as the former Soviet Union. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

13722. Government Intervention in Economic Affairs: France and Sweden.

Compares and contrasts the scope and objectives of French and Swedish government intervention in their respective economies since WWII. Characterizes French economic policy as a compromise between liberalism and social welfarism versus Sweden's full support for its hybrid social welfare state/private industry system, known as the "Middle Way." 5 pages, 2 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

13719. Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth by David C. Mowery and Nathan Rosenberg.

Critical summary and analysis of this 1991 work exploring the economic implications of technology for the comparative advantage of nations. 5 pages, 3 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $35
 

13703. Two Methods of Economic Historiography.

A comparison of two approaches to economic thought: the absolutist approach which views economics as a self-contained natural science and the relativistic approach which sees economic theory as the product of the social and economic environment in which it is written. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, bibliographic reference.
  $35
 

13608. Say's Law of Markets.

Examines how Malthus, Marx and Keynes criticized this economic law, with its view that "supply creates its own demand". It is concluded that flaws exist in all the arguments, and that the best perspective is one that considers supply and demand to be equally important. 11 pages, 46 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

13569. Capitalism, Patriarchy and Gender Relations.

Discusses feminist and anthropological theories on this subject and concludes that, despite the controversies, the concepts of patriarchy and capitalism are at least helpful in explaining the origins of gender inequalities. 8 pages, 24 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.
  $56
 

13497. Poverty Among the Developing Nations of the World.

Argues that poverty is more strongly related to internal causes than external causes. In making this argument, the paper covers such topics as colonialism, population growth, government policies, and the problems of ethnic divisions. Nigeria, Brazil and Malaysia are used as the main examples for making the paper's points. 25 pages, 79 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

13415. Critical Analysis of Adrian Forty's Views in Objects of Desire.

Agrees with his view that there is more design variety today, but argues that this is due more to "industrialism" than "capitalism." Also disagrees with Forty's views on capitalism causing the erosion of the crafts and trades and argues that capitalism has, in actuality, contributed to their continued existence. 13 pages, 27 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $91
 

13367. The Spirit of Rationalism and the Great Transition.

A brief essay which addresses the question, "What was the Great Transition that instigated what we now call modern society?" Argues that the central, catalytic theme within the Industrial Revolution expounded by Schumpeter, Boulding, Desai, O'Connell and others. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.
  $42
 

13359. Evaluating Quality in Services.

This paper considers the problems and prospects for evaluating quality and implementing quality control procedures in service organizations as contrast to manufacturing organizations. Argues that both the definition of quality, and the implementation of quality control processes must be significantly modified from their manufacturing paradigm to achieve effectiveness in the service organization. KEYWORDS: quality control service business term paper. APA Style. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

13274. The Influence of Utilitarianism on Classical Economic Thought.

Discusses how the economic thinkers Smith, Ricardo, Bentham and Mill made use of such utilitarian-based concepts as utility, equality of distribution and free markets. Despite differences in views, these thinkers all emphasized the importance of the individual within the economic system. 7 pages, 23 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

13256. The Economic Views of Adam Smith and Ibn Khaldun.

Discusses the similarities and differences of these two thinkers on such topics as the labor theory of value, division of labor, and free trade. Concludes with a consideration of why Ibn Khaldun's ideas took so long to be recognized in the West. 11 pages, 35 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

13251. The Asiatic Mode of Production.

Examines Marx's concept of a stagnant system of primitive mass production in Asian cultures, focusing on modern Chinese historiography and debate over the validity of this theory. Marx's theory, and recent rejection of the unilinear model of history East and West, are summarized. 15 pages, 16 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.
  $105
 

13250. Historical Analysis of Latin American Colonialism.

Argues against Wallerstein's world-system interpretation of underdevelopment, on the basis that local and non-economic factors must also be considered. Argues instead for an analysis of modes of production and labor relations, as advocated by Stern (in his study of silver mines and sugar plantations) and Hall (in his study of patrimonialism in Brazil). 12 pages, 33 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

13185. Distribution of Income in the Third World.

Rejects the view that income inequality is inevitable in the early stages of growth and discusses such factors as land distribution, lack of educational opportunities, and the entrenchment of the elite. Also notes the failure of government policies that place too much emphasis on global development and too little on domestic improvement. 8 pages, 29 footnotes in text, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

13113. Chinese Economic Reform and Development.

This report provides an overview and analysis of the economic and political-economic reforms in the Post-Mao era and considers the prospects for continued economic reform in the late 1990s and early 21st century. The analysis begins with a general overview and evaluation of the post-Mao economic reforms. Another sector provides a close look at the centerpiece of China's initial economic reform -- the agricultural sector -- considering both the contribution that this sector made to China's overall economic development and the reasons for the lagging productivity in this sector after 1985. Following a critical evaluation of the impact of reforms during the Deng era, a concluding section considers barriers to future economic reform. 22 pages, 69 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

13108. Oligopoly in the Pharmaceuticals Industry.

Looks at the drug industry as an example of a structural oligopoly; domination of the market by a few players is attributed to high R & D costs, patent protections, brand name recognition, and mergers and acquisitions that keep out new competitors. Eli Lilly is cited as a case example of a major industry player with a position protected by famous trade names and growth into biotechnology and non-drug businesses. 11 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

13105. Machine Tools and Advanced Manufacturing Technology.

Examines the role of machine tools and advanced manufacturing technology in the global race for improved productivity and improved competitiveness among leading industrial nations. Considers manufacturing technology in the context of overall levels of investment in plant and equipment, the accelerated introduction of robotics and computer-assisted manufacturing methods, and the global drive for quality control. 25 pages, 27 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

13041. The American Standard of Living: What Does the Future Hold?

Will the current generation of young adults fare worse than their parents? And what of their children? Will they do better than their parents or will they see a decline in their standard of living compared to the previous generation? These are the central issues addressed in this report which examines future prospects in American standards of living for today's young adults (i.e., persons in their early 20s) and their offspring. The analysis considers both general prospects for the current and future generation of young adults as evidenced by macroeconomic trends and some of the factors (e.g., gender, education, race) which may impact the prospects for particular individuals and/or identifiable demographic groups. 19 pages, 41 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

13038. The Political and Economic Effects of Colonialism in Indonesia.

A survey of Indonesian political and economic history since before 1500, focusing on questions of colonialism. Summarizes Indonesia's initial position as "a region of cultural, political and economic complexity that rivaled or even surpassed Europe..." and contrasts with the political and economic changes that made Java the most thoroughly colonized land in Asia before 1800. Excellent summaries of 19th & 20th Century Indonesian political history through war of independence 1945-9, and of the economic changes dictated by colonialism which meant huge transfers of wealth from Javanese peasants to European middle and upper classes, contributing to today's disparity of wealth between the EuroAmerican west and the Asian east. 11p., 5b., 21f.
  $77
 

12621. Relationship Between the Financial Structure & Economic Activity.

This survey summarizes what we know about the relationship of financial structures to the physical economy of goods and services at end-1997. Starting with a brilliant summary of the historical development of markets, as well as the development of market theory from Smith to Keynes, the study also covers the monetarist and rational expectations theories, and several specific theories trying to find microeconomic bases for the actual business conditions of the 1990's. Also includes evidence for existence of wealth effects, demonstrates the role of asymmetrical information in Asian collapse of late 1997, and gives evidence of markets not reaching most efficient distributions of resources. 11 pages, 20 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

12557. Imperialism and Colonialism in International Relations.

Answers questions about Marxist and other theories of imperialism and neo-imperialism, and 'what you would do to address North-South inequality if you had God-like powers?' Provides competent summary of Hobson, Lenin, and the many various mechanisms proposed for neo-imperialism. Criticizes these theorists for not paying enough attention to political motives of power projection and control. Uses God-like powers to propose an equal distribution of physical and human resources in the past, so that modernizations and industrializations would be more evenly spread. There would still be imperialisms and oppressions in human history, but at least these wouldn't be so European. 8 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.
  $56
 

12463. The Anti-Corn Law League.

Describes the suggest of the English manufacturers and factory workers in their fight against the Corn Law protectionism for domestic wheat production in the early 19th century. 11 pages, 14 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

12430. Economic Policy in Venezuela, 1989-1996.

Detailed political and economic history of the little-known story of Venezeula's descent into economic hell, and the slow road back. Includes basic statistics and history of Venezuela from colonial times, the development of the oil economy from the 1920's to the 80's (and how the oil riches were seldom spent productively). Very detailed study of post-1989 attempts to end inflation and provide economic stability, including both politics and economics: reform, coups, protests, and stagnation under President Perez 1989-93, bank collapse, emergency measures including wage, price and capital controls, and renewed attempts at reform and reconciliation with the IMF under President Caldera 1994-96. Conclusion stresses the difference between income and wealth, the necessity for a positive political context behind economic orthodoxy, and how the tens of billions of dollars of graft and corruption among the upper classes were much more responsible for Venezuela's problems than the hundreds of millions of dollars of subsidies for working class consumption. 24p., 234b., 38f.
  $133
 

12420. Venezuela: A Nation Dependent on Oil.

Thorough study of the problems of dependency on one product, even a lucrative one like petroleum. Covers early history, the first concessions and oil wells, international politics of early oil concessions, the first oil boom of the 1920's, the carious attempts to increase Venezuela's revenues from oil in the 30's and 40's, the beginnings of Venezuelan-Arab oil cooperation and the early years of OPEC, the OPEC price and ownership revolution 1971-74, how and why Venezuelan's spending always overtook oil revenues in the 70's and 80's, the economic crisis of the 90's and the return of private companies to Venezuelan oil, Venezuela's shale oil reserves and prospects for the future. Much attention to oil statistics and ownership structures throughout. 16p., 9b., 30 notes in text.
  $112
 

12417. Illegal Immigration and the Us Economy.

Analyzes the impact of illegal immigration on the US economy. Concludes that the overall net economic effect of illegal immigration is positive, but notes that the distribution of the costs and benefits of illegal immigration is unequal, with certain employer segments and skilled native workers deriving the bulk of the benefits, and legal immigrants and (to a lesser extent) unskilled native workers absorbing the bulk of the costs. Also notes that the states absorb more costs than the federal government. 24 pages, 49 footnotes, 27 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

12378. The Economic Geography of Biotechnology.

The paper argues that factors such as proximity to university facilities, existing high-tech industry and a well-educated workforce are the reasons why biotechnology firms tend to cluster in a few metropolitan areas such as Boston, San Diego and San Francisco. 5p. 14f. 8p..
  $35
 

12287. Investment, Trade and the Future: America and Japan.

A careful dissection of economic basics in modern conditions, answering questions on the effects of Japan's greater R & D investment, and investment in general, than America. Covers the ins and outs of Hecksher-Ohlin theory, problems of statistics in modern era of globalization, strength of leading Japanese companies through recession of 1990-92, Japan's lead in investment in Asia, assessments of American investment performance, similarities of Japan and USA. Includes proof that investment in basic R & D creates jobs, and never doubts that higher investment now must lead to greater rewards in the long run. 10p., 11b., 17f.
  $70
 

12189. The Controversy of Rent Control.

Examines the claim that rent control policies reduce the quality and quantity of available housing. Also discusses how the current housing market is based on a model of monopolistic competition and argues that "soft controls" can be effective as long as they are flexible enough to keep rents from going either too high or too low. 10 pages, 25 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

12026. A Problem in a Developing Nation: Overpopulation in Egypt.

Brief, cogent essay profiling the problem of overpopulation in Egypt, considering its scope, causes, and complicating factors. Looks at the relationship between overpopulation and Egypt's slow pace of economic development. 8 pages, 19 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

11947. Microeconomic Effects of the "Flat Tax."

5 pages, 0 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. See Section 7D -- Economic Theory.
  $35
 

11947. Microeconomic Effects of the "Flat Tax."

Discusses the positive and negative effects of a flat tax on industries and firms. Covers the effects of a flat tax on housing and medical care. 5p. 2b.
  $35
 

11856. The Promise and Limits of Technology as a Tool for Achieving Sustainable Development.

Examines both the promises and the limitations of the use of technology in making development sustainable. Discusses the two contrasting theoretical views on the role of technology in sustainable development and considers the historical approach toward technology in sustainability within developed countries. Looks at a number of examples of how technology can and has been used to promote sustainability. A concluding section examines the limitations of technology in promoting sustainability, looking specifically at the issue of global warming and climate control. 12 pages, 23 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 11856
  $84
 

11855. Plato and Aristotle as Economic Thinkers.

Assesses the social philosophies of Plato and Aristotle in terms of modern economic theory. Finds Plato's philosophy to be more theoretical while Aristotle's is more scientific. Considers the economic backdrop of their theories. 11 pages, 20 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

11703. The Environment and Development Issues.

Considers the components and implications of the problems and dilemmas of environmental degradation and global environmental interdependence, both as they relate to North-South relations and as they relate to the issue of sustainable development in the less developed South. 10 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

11695. Adam Smith and Karl Marx on Economic Growth.

Analyzes and compares the views of Adam Smith and Karl Marx on economic growth and development. Presents their opposing views on the issue of whether economic growth benefitted society and then considers an appropriate contemporary view on the issue, given the fact that many economies have now neared the limits of sustainable growth. 11 pages, 7 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

11694. Industrial Revolutions and Traditional Societies.

See Section 7D. 10 pages, 11 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

11694. Industrial Revolutions and Traditional Societies.

Drawing on Braudel's The Wheels of Commerce and Heilbroner's The Making of Economic Society, the paper investigates the question: "Could the Industrial Revolution have occurred in a traditional (pre-capitalist) society? Why or why not?" Concludes that a traditional society could not have produced an Industrial Revolution, because of its dependence on many different economic and social circumstances linked to capitalist societies. 10 pages, 11 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

11605. Market Economy and Liberal Democracy.

See Section 19D. 9 pages, 20 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

11605. Market Economy and Liberal Democracy.

Discussion of relationship between markets and democracy, following writers Gray, Lindblom and Polyani; argues against Gray's idea that democracy flows out of property rights, in favor of societal regulation of markets. 9 pages, 20 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

11602. Argentina's Golden Age: Main Factors in Economic Growth & Development, 1860-1914.

Overview and analysis of Argentine development during the period of its first "economic miracle." Profiles expansion of national income, productivity, foreign trade and investment. Pinpoints British foreign investment, the building of the railways, immigration, system of land ownership and control, technological innovation and technical improvements and a supportive political/social structure as the main factors in Argentina's export-led development and expansion during this period. 17 pages, 38 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.
  $119
 

11538. Privatizing the World Economy.

Overview and history of privatization. Defines and discusses variations of privatization. Considers motives, objectives, risks, costs and results of privatization looking at specific examples from Great Britain, Latin America and Eastern Europe. 12 pages, 56 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

11378. Inequality in the Economy: Causes and Effects.

Cites figures on growing income inequality and examines work productivity, education, and the shift to services among the possible causes. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 
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