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3. ART


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18797. POSTMODERNISM AND GRAPHIC DESIGN.

This research paper discusses the postmodern style in graphic arts since the 1970s, and how graphic artists have sought to break rules while maintaining professionalism in their craft. It is noted that postmodern elements can be seen in art, advertising, and business as well as in images used for protest demonstrations. 2 illustrations are included. TAGS: graphic design, typography, postmodernism, essay, artistic protest. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 4 pages, 12 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 1,003 words.
  $28
 

18725. THE ART OF SHIRIN NESHAT.

This paper is concerned with Shirin Neshat, an Iranian-American artist who is known for her work in photography, film and video installations. Neshat uses paradoxical images and ideas to create a powerful emotional impact. Her work often focuses on themes about the condition of women in Islamic societies and the misconceptions that Westerners have about women in Middle East cultures. Includes 10 images. TAGS: art film photography women Islam Iran. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,325 words.
  $70
 

18662. THE ART OF MARCEL DUCHAMP.

This paper discusses the work of Marcel Duchamp, the French dada artist, and the influence that he had on artists that followed him (including surrealists, Pop artists, and postmodernists). It is noted that Duchamp was influenced by cubism and futurism in creating his humorous and shocking works. Examples are provided from Duchamp’s artworks, including his “ready-mades” and glass constructions. KEYWORDS: art modernism dada Dadaism cubism surrealists Duchamp. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 10 pages, 33 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 2,570 words.
  $70
 

18658. A SYSTEM OF ARCHITECTUAL ORNAMENT (LOUIS H. SULLIVAN).

This paper provides a favorable review of A System of Architectural Ornament, the 1924 book by noted modernist architect Louis H. Sullivan. Sullivan’s book is concerned with developing a theory for using ornamentation in architecture. According to Sullivan, designs can be based on a combination of organic elements (such as leaf patterns) and inorganic elements (such as geometric shapes). Sullivan also describes his philosophical views on the creative powers in humankind. KEYWORDS: book review architecture ornamentation art. MLA Style. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,374 words.
  $42
 

18549. PANOFSKY’S THE LIFE AND ART OF ALBRECHT DURER.

This paper critically reviews the 1943 monograph by Erwin Panofsky regarding the life and work of the German artist Albrecht Durer (1471-1528). The paper discusses the monograph’s contents and Panofsky’s methodology, as well as Panofsky’s views on the periods of Durer’s career, the influences on his work, and his contribution to the development of art history. In addition, Panofsky’s approach is compared with that of Fedja Anzelewsky, author of the 1980 book Durer: His Art and Life. It is concluded that Panofsky’s work is highly informative and useful, despite the occasional excesses in prose style. The major drawback to the work is its failure to include illustrative reproductions of Durer’s art within the text (as opposed to the black and white reproductions, not of the finest quality, that are included in an appendix). KEYWORDS: art history Panofsky Durer. MLA Style. 11 pages, 19 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,589 words.
  $77
 

18020. ITALIAN FUTURIST WOMEN.

This term paper examines the role of women in the artistic and literary movement known as Futurism (approximately 1909-1918). Arising in Italy during the period of World War I, the movement called for radical change in art and society. It praised machines, violence, and warfare, while denigrating feminine values as weak, soft, and hopelessly tied to tradition. The paper discusses the views of male Futurists such as Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (the movement's founder) and various male poets. These views are compared with the writings of two prominent women in the movement: Valentine de Saint-Point and Sibilla Aleramo. These writings show that women were an important intellectual force in the movement, challenging the male-dominated views on gender roles. KEYWORDS: italy literary movement futurism gender essay. Turabian Style with Bottom of Page Footnotes and Separate Bibliography. 11 pages, 10 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,490 words.
  $77
 

18016. VERMEER'S "YOUNG WOMAN WITH A WATER PITCHER."

This paper analyzes an oil painting at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art: "Young Woman With a Water Pitcher" (c. 1662) by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer. Following a brief description of the work and the life of the artist, the paper discusses how the work balances contrasting elements in shape, image, line, rest/motion, color, and light. The scholarly debate over the painting's presumed meaning is also discussed. KEYWORDS: dutch renaissance painting johannes vermeer metropolitan museum of art. MLA Style. 7 pages, 20 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,735 words.
  $49
 

17586. DAUMIER’S “THE THIRD CLASS CARRIAGE” & ROUSSEAU’S “THE REPAST OF THE LION”.

This paper compares and contrasts two oil paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art by two 19th Century French artists. Following a brief review of the life and work of each artist, the analysis compares the two paintings in terms of subject matter, technique and realism. Concludes that Daumier is a perfect representative of Realism while Rousseau represents Surrealism. KEYWORDS: surrealism realism French painters 19th century. MLA Style. 7 pages, 16 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,776 words.
  $49
 

17288. PROFILE OF PHOTOGRAPHER MICHAEL DISFARMER.

This paper profiles the life and work of photographer Michael Disfarmer. Disfarmer (whose real name was Mike Meyers) is known for the black and white portraits that he took between the 1930s and 1950s of the poor, rural people in the community of Heber Springs, Arkansas. KEYWORDS: rural Americana photography. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,471 words.
  $42
 

17281. CASSONI.

This paper provides an overview and discussion of a type of chest (often used for storing clothes or other personal items) that was popular in fifteenth century Tuscany, known as the cassone (plural: cassoni). This paper focuses on painted cassoni; the panels and inner lids of these chests featured works by noted artists of the Italian Renaissance. Discusses how the cassoni served as pieces of art and symbols of wealth and social importance as well as fulfilling utilitarian functions. KEYWORDS: Renaissance furniture cassoni chests. 10 pages, 33 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,678 words.
  $70
 

15971. "BIG TREES": A PAINTING BY PAUL CEZANNE.

This paper analyzes this Post-Impressionist painting and its emphasis on the underlying geometric structures of reality. Describes Cezanne’s use of artistic elements and how the painting marks a step toward modernism and Cubism. 6 pages; 9 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,444 words.
  $42
 

15925. "THE SHELTON WITH SUNSPOTS" PAINTING BY GEORGIA O'KEEFFE.

This paper describes O’Keeffe’s painting, and discusses its subject matter, influences, and sense of meaning. In addition, the paper includes an analysis of the painting’s style, composition, and use of artistic elements. 10 pages; 16 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

15776. WOMEN IN SURREALISM.

Discusses the role of women artists in the movement, the sexism of the movement's male leaders, and erotic images of women by male artists. Also refers to works by key female figures in the movement, such as Leonor Fini and Leonora Carrington. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

15770. VISUAL ARTS IN THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE.

In the 1920's Harlem Renaissance, there was a controversy over how the "New Negro" (with growing demands for equality and civil rights) should be represented in contrast to the stereotype of the "Old Negro." In the arts, this controversy was reflected in an effort to show the non-idealized "truth" of the African-American urban experience. This paper includes a discussion of the works of various visual artists such as Archibald Motley, Aaron Douglas, and Palmer Hayden, among others. 6 pages, 19 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

15725. DEPICTION OF JEWELRY IN 17TH CENTURY ITALIAN PAINTING.

Examples from the works of various painters (including Geurcino, Gentileschi, and others) are used to show how jewelry was used to evoke the ancient past, glorify figures, symbolize strength (or, paradoxically, weakness), and as part of regional costumes. 8 pages, 22 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

15583. CANONIC IMAGES IN POPULAR VISUAL CULTURE.

A discussion of the trend toward incorporating images form art history into contemporary films, television shows and advertisements. Various examples are cited to show how such images are used to create a mood or satiric statement, or (in ads) to create associations with fine taste or high culture. 11 pages, 33 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

15571. THE MERGING OF FINE ART AND POPULAR CULTURE.

There has been a trend in post-modern times toward erasing the former distinctions that existed between fine art and pop culture. This paper discusses this trend, looking at the influence of such things as the Industrial Revolution, mass consumerism, the mass media, and the 1960's Pop Art movement. 10 pages, 28 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

15554. ST. FRANCIS RECEIVING THE STIGMATA (JAN VAN EYCK) AND PROMETHEUS BOUND (RUBENS).

Compares these two paintings, which are representative of the styles of the early Renaissance and the early Baroque. Both works are concerned with the suffering of a well-known character; however, Van Eyck's painting is religious and shows the stigmata as a sign of God's favor, while Rubens' work shows a mythological figure who is being tortured by an eagle. The paper also discusses differences in symbolism, composition, treatment of space, and other elements of artistic style. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

15541. A TASTE FOR POP: POP ART, GENDER & CONSUMER CULTURE” BY CECILE WHITING.

This paper provides a review and analysis of Whiting’s book about the pop art movement of the 1960s, viewed from the perspective of a feminist scholar writing in the 1990s. The paper includes a chapter-by-chapter summary of the book, which considers the role and importance of all the major pop icons of the 1960s, including Andy Warhol. Concludes that Whiting provides a good survey of the historical development of Pop art and its relationship to consumer culture and to representations of gender. KEYWORDS: book review nonfiction pop culture 1960s andy warhol Lichtensteinfeminism gender. MLA Style. 8 pages, 20 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

15521. JOSE GUADALUPE POSADA.

A paper on the influential modern Mexican graphic artist, known for using expressionistic techniques in his engravings. Various works are described including works criticizing the dictatorial government of the time and others depicting the harsh social conditions of the people. The paper also examines Posada's artistry, his depiction of news events, and his use of death imagery. 12 pages, 38 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

15520. THE TAJ MAHAL.

Describes the 17th Century work of architecture and discusses the debate over its meaning. Various interpretations are discussed, including Begley's view that the building symbolically represents Islamic religious concepts. It is concluded that more than one interpretation on the building's meaning and influences may be correct at the same time. 16 pages, 51 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $112
 

15503. SOURCES OF FIGURAL IMAGERY IN ISLAMIC ART.

Three examples of Islamic art depicting figures are discussed: Samarra art, Fatimid luster pottery and the city walls of Konya. It is shown that classical culture and location traditions influenced the use of figural representation. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

15502. ISLAMIC CALLIGRAPHY.

Discusses the reasons for the importance of Arabic letters and Qur'anic phrases in Islamic art and culture, including the view that such writing represents the visual expression of the Word of God. The styles of Islamic calligraphy are also discussed, as well as the concepts of the Divine Pen and the Guarded Tablet. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

15222. CONTROVERSY OVER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT'S FUNDING OF THE ARTS.

This paper looks at the controversy stirred by the National Endowment for the Arts' funding of exhibitions of works by Robert Mapplethorpe and Andres Serrano, and the subsequent ruling that the NEA must consider "general standards of decency" when granting awards. Despite such problems, it is argued that the government should continue to fund the arts. 5 pages, 18 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.
  $35
 

15221. AUTUMN RHYTHM (NUMBER 30) (JACKSON POLLOCK) & UNTITLED (YOUR BODY IS A BATTLEGROUND) (BARBARA KRUGER).

Pollock's painting is a modernist work of Abstract Expressionism, and Kruger's silkscreen is a postmodern statement regarding political feminism. The different styles, artistic techniques and purposes of these two works are discussed. 6 pages, 5 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.
  $42
 

15220. WATER LILIES (MONET) AND THE SCREAM (MUNCH).

The purpose of Monet's painting was to create an aesthetic experiment, while Munch's painting was made to express a psychological state of mind. The two paintings are compared in terms of their subject matter, style, materials, color, and other artistic elements. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.
  $42
 

15191. LYOTARD'S POST-MODERN "AESTHETICS OF THE SUBLIME."

Based on views derived from Burke and Kant, Lyotard claimed that the purpose of art is to present that which can be felt or intuited, but is otherwise beyond the normal comprehension of human beings. The perspective, along with the rejection of "grand narratives," helps to explain the stylistic trends of post-modern art. 9 pages, 29 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.
  $63
 

15180. EROTIC ART IN PRE-COLUMBIAN PERU.

Covers the historical development of erotic ceramic art in Peru, from the earliest artifacts through the high point in Mochica (or Moche) culture, to its decline by the time of the Incas. Also describes the works and their style and the use of various themes. 12 pages, 40 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.
  $84
 

15178. HECTOR GUIMARD'S DESIGNS FOR THE PARIS METRO ENTRANCES.

In the subway entrances, which were installed between 1900 and 1913, Guimard sought to capture the spirit of modernism by using the Art Nouveau style. The different types of entranceways, with examples, are discussed, as well as the construction materials used, and the mass production of prefabricated components. 14 pages, 52 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.
  $98
 

15176. EDVARD MUNCH AND THE THEME OF THE "FEMME FATALE".

Examples of the painter's work are used to illustrate his ambiguous view of women (alluring yet dangerous at the same time), and his anxieties regarding sex and death. 8 pages, 23 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.
  $56
 

15159. BREAKFAST IN BED (MARY CASSATT) AND HOPE I (GUSTAV KLIMT).

Both paintings are concerned with the theme of motherhood; however, there are many differences in how this theme is expressed. Basically, Cassatt presents an intimate, subjective portrayal of a mother and child; however, Klimt uses death images and decorative elements in order to turn a pregnant nude into an "object" on which his own hopes and fears are projected. 14 pages, 25 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.
  $98
 

15113. THE BRAZEN SERPENT IMAGE IN MICHELANGELO'S SISTINE CHAPEL.

This essay explores the iconography of the Brazen Serpent image, with special reference to the location of the scene in the overall decoration of the ceiling, the liturgical significance of the image in Biblical and Church history, and the patronage of this stage of the work, which compelled its placement in the overall iconography of the chapel's decoration. The paper argues that the Brazen Serpent presents a doubled-edged symbol suggesting both fear and prudence. KEYWORDS: michaelangelo sistine chapel brazen serpent iconography. Chicago Parenthetical Style. 9 pages, 22 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

15040. SALVADOR DALI AND SURREALISM.

Discusses Dali's place in the art movement that explored the unconscious mind through the use of dream imagery. Covers both his paintings and films, with special reference to the 1931 painting The Persistence of Memory. 7 pages, 25 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.
  $49
 

15023. PAINTING IN THE CHINESE SONG DYNASTY AND THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE.

Argues that long-lasting changes in style occurred in both cultures; however, there were also crucial differences, which were due to the philosophical orientations of the East and the West. 13 pages, 29 footnotes, 10 bibliographic reference.
  $91
 

15015. ARTISTS AND INTELLECTUALS IN THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC (1919-1933).

A discussion of the "New Sobriety" movement and its criticism of warfare and the German government, with special emphasis on Thomas Mann, Otto Dix and George Grosz. Also discusses the growing persecution of the Nazis and their view that the work of such artists was "degenerate" and contrary to the aims of German nationalism. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.
  $49
 

14099. FRENCH GASTRONOMY.

Covers the history of French cooking from the Middle Ages to the present day. Includes information on noted chefs and writers, regional differences in foods and dishes, and recent trends such as nouvelle cuisine and the acceptance of international influences. 20 pages, 90 footnotes, 14 bibliographical references.
  $133
 

14073. MARY CASSATT AND THE MODERN WOMAN.

Discusses how the works of the Impressionist painter reflect the views on "femininity" that existed at the time. Discusses how she treated women subjectively rather than as "objects," and how she depicted women's space; also compares her depiction of women with those of Renoir, Degas, Manet and Morisot. 15 pages, 42 footnotes, 10 bibliographic reference.
  $105
 

14065. COMPARISON OF TWO MONUMENTS IN ROME.

The Ara Pacis Augustae (a classical monument) is compared to the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus (a post-classical monument). Both works show the influence of the Attic (classical Greek) style, but differences can also be found in how the relief figures are carved and in their themes. 12 pages, 37 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.
  $84
 

14045. LEONARDO DA VINCI.

This paper concerns the art of Leonardo, as well as the art movements that came before and after him. It is shown that Leonardo was influenced by the ideas and techniques of the Early Renaissance and that he in turn developed his own style that influenced the artists of the High Renaissance as well as artists in later centuries. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.
  $49
 

14042. VAN GOGH AND POST-IMPRESSIONISM.

This paper discusses how the painter was influenced by Impressionism and how he, in turn, influenced the Expressionist movement that came after him. This influence came about because Van Gogh was more interested in expressing his tormented subjective feelings than depicting objective reality. 8 pages, 19 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.
  $56
 

14038. ADVERTISING OR PORNOGRAPHY: PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGES OF THE BENETTON AND CALVIN KLEIN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS.

Examines the legal, social and aesthetic implications of the shock-effect ad campaigns of two fashion firms. Compares the social protest of the Colors of Benetton images with the soft-core eroticism of the Calvin Klein ads. 22 pages, 21 footnotes, 20 bibliographical references.
  $133
 

13834. CENSORSHIP AND THE POST-MODERNIST CHALLENGE.

Examines the new wave of censorship attacks on the arts and post-modernism's particular vulnerability to censorship attacks. Citing specific examples of the censorship of contemporary post-modernist artists including Andres Serrano, Robert Mapplethorpe, Keith Haring and Jeff Koons, and argues that by bringing in elements of realism and historical references the post-modernists have laid themselves open to attack from both the traditional modernists and conservative reactionaries. 8 pages, 7 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

13825. PICASSO'S "PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN."

The artist's 1909 portrait study is analyzed in the context of the historical development of modern painting. The painting is seen as a representative work of the period of "analytical cubism," the most rigorous and methodical period of Picasso's experiments with geometric form. 12 pages, 13 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

13785. MANNERISM AND BAROQUE ART.

A description and analysis of the evolution of mannerism and Baroque art and an overview of some of the most influential painters of those styles including the mannerist, El Greco, and baroque artists Poussin and Berninin. 5 pages, bibliographic reference.
  $35
 

13649. AESTHETICS.

A three-part paper that analyzes the artistic theories of R. G. Collingwood, Leo Tolstoy, and Immanual Kant and Clive Bell. The author examines Collingwood's rejection of a technical theory of art, Tolstoy's controversial expressive theory of aesthetics, and Bell and Kant's theory on the formal elements of art. 8 pages, 2 bibliographic references.
  $56
 

13615. KANDINSKY'S THEORIES OF ABSTRACT PAINTING.

The paper looks at Kandinsky's views on: the importance of spirituality in art, the link between music and painting, how forms and colors affect viewers, and the attainment of simultaneous tension and balance in a painting. 9 pages, 24 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

13516. THE ASSUMPTION OF THE VIRGIN (EL GRECO).

Covers the style and visual elements of the painting, as well as its Counter-Reformation message and its theme of the divinity of Mary. 10 pages, 24 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

13496. MICHIO HOSHINO AND JAPANESE NATURE PHOTOGRAPHY.

The first part of the paper discusses the Japanese photographic style with references to the nature photographers of the nation. The second part focuses on the work of Hoshino, who specialized in wildlife pictures before his untimely death in 1996. 11 pages, 37 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

13485. ETHNIC MUTILATION AND RITUAL SCARIFICATION.

Analyzes what practices such as scarification, neck stretching, genital mutilation and footbinding tell us about cultural constructions of beauty and ethnic identity. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

13468. THE NEED FOR CENSORSHIP OF ARTS AND CULTURE.

Discusses the problem of obscene or hateful forms of expression that harm others. Also discusses Supreme Court rulings that have failed to censor such forms of expression, and argues that the First Amendment does not guarantee the right to use them. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

13440. NORMS OF DRESS IN MOROCCO.

Discusses how the various styles of clothing and adornments reflect the cultural heritage of the people. In the course of this discussion, the paper covers Islamic, European and traditional influences. 7 pages, 27 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

13433. THE PROGRESS OF LOVE (FRAGONARD).

Discusses this series of paintings by the French artist, and their relationship to his life and career. Includes the influences on the work, possible reasons for its rejection by King Louis XV's mistress, and concludes that it represents the height of the Rococo style while pointing ahead to the Romantic style. 10 pages, 32 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

13415. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF ADRIAN FORTY'S VIEWS IN OBJECTS OF DESIRE.

Agrees with his view that there is more design variety today, but argues that this is due more to "industrialism" than "capitalism." Also disagrees with Forty's views on capitalism causing the erosion of the crafts and trades and argues that capitalism has, in actuality, contributed to their continued existence. 13 pages, 27 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $91
 

13414. THE SOCIAL DOCUMENTARY PHOTOGRAPHY OF DOROTHEA LANGE.

Emphasizes the extent to which Lange's pictures of Depression victims can be said to be true to reality. Argues that although her work was powerful and effective, it was for the most part not true to reality (except in an artistic sense) because it was iconographic and was designed to serve a propagandistic purpose. 13 pages, 40 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $91
 

13406. EXISTENTIAL CONCEPT OF OTHERNESS AND THE UNCONSCIOUS IN ART AND PHILOSOPHY.

Looks at the origins and expressions of the existential concept of "otherness" in art and philosophy. The origins of otherness and alienation in Kierkegaard, Marx and Nietzsche are linked to existential ideas of the other in Buber, Camus and Sartre; the influence of otherness in modern art, and its meaning in anthropology, are also examined. 7p. 17f, 13b
  $49
 

13405. ROME AND THE NEOCLASSICAL REVIVAL.

The lure of Rome for artists, scholars and travelers in the eighteenth and nineteenth century is examined in this paper. The rise of Rome as the central repository of Renaissance and the Baroque masterworks, as well as its position as the site of ruins and statuary from the classical, is described. Various aspects of Neoclassical style and taste as they relate to the art and culture of eighteenth and nineteenth are noted. Keywords: Italy artistic revival Neoclassicism. 14 pages; 14 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources.
  $98
 

13383. ISLAMIC METALWARE.

Examines the origins, development and techniques of Islamic metalworking, focusing on the Blacas Ewer in the British Museum. Regional schools and styles are compared, and the importance of the inlays, engravings and inscriptions of Islamic metalware are highlighted in the detailed analysis of the Blacas Ewer. Scenes and images from Persian court life are described, and unique aspects ofthe Blacas Ewer are compared with those of less pieces. 21 pages, 29 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

13301. THE TRADITION OF THE NUDE IN WESTERN ART.

The depiction of the naked body as high art is reviewed from the Greek Classical era down to the modern period. Conventional forms, idealized beauty, and aesthetic attitudes toward the body are discussed for different genres and periods of Western art. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

13292. THE NUDE MALE FIGURES BY MICHELANGELO.

Compares the David, the Dying Slave and the Deposition of Christ figures in terms of pose, figural type, carving technique, and expressive mode. Sees Michelangelo progressing from the physical to the spiritual as he matures. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

13290. MICHAELANGELO'S SISTINE CHAPEL.

Contrasts the Creation of Adam and Creation of Eve in the artist's masterpiece; psychoanalytic, biographical and iconographic elements are discussed. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

13289. POST MODERNISM.

Considers whether post-modernism is a style or a period, looking at the origins and techniques of post-modern architecture, literature and art. Concludes that post-modernism was a period (ca 1970-90) rather than a distinct style or movement. 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

13263. THE PRINTING INNOVATIONS OF JOHN BASKERVILLE.

Examines the life and work of 18th Century printer and the developments he made in typeface, paper, ink, and book design. Baskerville's changes resulted in a more readable and aesthetic style of printing which has been influential to the present day. 7 pages, 22 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

13243. EVALUATION OF THE CRY (EDVARD MUNCH).

Based on the theories of Aristotle, Tolstoy, and others, this paper argues that the painting is a good work of art. It expresses a universal emotion in a clear, sincere way and, although the emotion is negative, the work gives insights into what it means to be human. 12 pages, 22 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

13223. THE PROBLEM OF EVIL.

Discusses the problem as presented in works by Goya ("Saturn Devouring His Children"), Poe (Fall of the House of Usher) and Voltaire (Candide). Argues that Goya's view is too pessimistic and Poe's is too fantastic. Of the three, Voltaire's position is the one most useful in everyday life. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

13094. GHIBERTI'S BRONZE DOORS AT THE FLORENCE BAPTISTRY.

Looks at the new Renaissance elements in the composition, spatial perspective, figural details and architecture of Lorenzo Ghiberti's famous ten panel bronze doors. 7 pages, 12 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

12608. FRIDA KAHLO AND THE ART MARKET.

A discussion of this "superstar" Latin American artist whose paintings have recently received multi-million dollar prices at auctions. Discusses specific paintings, and examines the reasons for Kahlo's popularity. 11 pages, 55 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

12607. SELF-PORTRAIT WITH MONKEY (FRIDA KAHLO).

Analysis of the meaning in this 1938 painting. How the emotional expression, images and color choices relate to themes from the artist's life, such as her invalidism, childlessness, marital difficulties, and feelings of strength and sensuality. 11 pages, 31 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

12606. ADORATION OF THE MAGI (ITALIAN RENAISSANCE PAINTING BY FRA ANGELICO AND FILIPPO LIPPI).

Examines the painting as a transitional work between the Late Gothic and Renaissance styles. Describes the artists' early attempt to attain realism and perceptual depth, and also discusses the narrative and symbolic meanings of the work. 12 pages, 30 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

12605. LIFE AND WORK OF SCULPTOR VEIT STOSS.

A discussion of the life and work of this German sculptor from the Late Gothic period. Examines his notable wood altarpieces, statuettes and other works. Describes his use of naturalism, his elaborate, expressive style, and his influence on the work of later artists. 10 pages, 61 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.
  $70
 

12604. MONET'S EARLY YEARS.

Looks at the life and work of French painter Claude Monet, in his early years as a realist and experimental landscape painter. Influences of Manet, Renoir and Bazille are noted, and technical advances toward impressionism are described in the period 1860-1880. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

12600. FRIDA KAHLO AS A SURREALIST.

Covers the views of the theorist Andre Breton on this subject, with emphasis on Kahlo's painting "What the Water gave Me." Also discusses Kahlo's claim that she was not influenced so much by surrealism as by the traditions of Mexican art and her need to express her own painful memories. 5 pages, 21 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 

12350. THE TRANSFORMATION OF A SYMBOL: THE SWASTIKA.

Calm, thorough discussion of how the swastika went from an innocent 10,000 year history as a decorative motif to a device contaminated by Nazi associations for generations to come. Includes examples of earliest knows swastikas in ancient artifact, design variations, attempts (all unsuccessful) to prove a specific meaning for the ancient swastika, summary of work of 19th Century ethnographers on swastika, role of Schliemann, Burnouf and Zmigrodski in linking swastika to late 19th Cent. German anti-Semitism, beginnings of the Nazis, Hitler's personal role in defining and designing swastika as THE central symbol of Nazism. 12p., 5b., 35 notes in text.
  $84
 

12152. DUDTCH PAINTER HIERONYMOUS BOSCH.

Studies the life and work of the late-medieval Dutch painter, with emphasis on his use of symbolic images to express the beliefs of the time. Bosch was especially concerned with showing the contrast between the divine salvation of Christianity and the "human folly" of living in sin. 11 pages, 29 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

12151. JULIO-CLAUDIAN ART.

Emphasizes the influence of Greek classicism on the works of the period, including portrait sculptures, coins, and wall paintings. During the early part of the period, figures were idealized and there were few innovations in style. during the later part of the period, however, there was a gradual shift toward increased realism. 20 pages, 60 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

12150. PTOLMEIC ART.

11p. See Section 3: Art.
  $77
 

12106. ROMANESQUE SCULPTURE IN FRANCE.

Analyzes the iconography of Romanesque tympanum sculpture in France. Traces the development of the art form and looks at possible motivations for its symbolism. Considers and discusses themes found in the sculpture, including violence, bestiality, salvation and redemption. Argues that the iconography reflected important changes in social and religious values of the period. Includes 14 illustrations. 24 pages, 36 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

12001. THE DEVELOPMENT OF VIRGIN ICONOGRAPHY IN BYZANTINE ICONS.

Emphasizes how portraits of the Virgin Mary were used for devotional purposes during the Byzantine Period (330-1453 AD). Discusses images, symbols and gestures which show the Virgin in various roles such as Mother of God, Heavenly Queen, and Indicator of the Way. Also includes a discussion of how the Virgin images became more passionate over the course of time. 8 pages, 31 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

11976. STUDY OF A GREEK VASE BY EXEKIAS.

Treatment of this 6th century BC black-figure vase and its depiction of the myth of Achilles and Penthesilea. Discusses Greek vase painting in general and also compares the work with other treatments of the myth. Argues that the vase of Exekias shows the importance of myths in the lives of ancient Greeks and also represents the shift toward humanism which was occurring at the time. 30 pages, 68 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

11974. THE PRIMA PORTA STATUE OF AUGUSTUS.

Detailed study of this work and its role as propaganda for the reign of the Roman emperor. Discusses Augustus' use of propaganda in art and literature in general, and then focuses on how the statue shows Augustus to be both a great commander and divine leader. Also discusses how the statue reflects Augustus' genealogy and his pietas (heroic humility). 30 pages, 87 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

11972. THE BOOK OF KELLS.

History and description of the 8th century Irish illuminated manuscript which shows the merging of Christian and pre-Christian influences. Also discusses illuminated manuscripts in general and compares the Book of Kells with other manuscripts of the time. 12 pages, 35 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

11967. MUSEUMS AND COMPUTERS: A NEW RELATIONSHIP.

Examines the history of computer oriented museum exhibitions. Notes the usefulness of computers in creating graphics as well as the positive response to their "hands on" use. Refers to a variety of art and museum scholars. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

11961. APPROPRIATION IN POSTMODERN ART.

Defines "postmodernism" and "appropriation" using the theories of Lyotard and Barthes. Refers to the art of Cindy Sherman, Bruce Nauman, Victor Burgin, Robert Heincecken, and Jeff Koons. 12 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

11951. THE FASHION OF PAUL POIRET AND THE BALLET RUSSES.

Discusses the revolutionary designs of the French fashion designer and interior decorator of the early 20th century. Includes a discussion of his use of bright colors and "orientalism," as well as his influence on the Art Deco style. Also considers the extent to which he may have been influenced by the work of Leon Baskst (designer of the sets and costumes for the Ballets Russes). 7 pages, 28 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

11940. THE SURREALIST DRAWINGS OF LOUISE BOURGEOIS.

Analyzes her drawings "Throbbing Pulse", "Untitled", and "Femme Maison". Considers her role as a lone woman within the Surrealist movement. Discusses Marcel Duchamp and Paul Klee's relationships with her. 7 pages, 5 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $49
 

11808. PIET MONDRIAN'S "BLUE FACADE."

An analysis of Mondrian's painting and ways in which it helps define abstraction. Considers Mondrian's aesthetic philosophy as it developed. 7 pages, 0 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

11806. THE PHOTOGRAPHY OF ROY STRYKER.

A detailed exploration of the life and work of Roy Stryker. Discusses his beliefs that photography can inform our understanding of labor and business. Describes Stryker's choice of photographic subjects in recording the history of America in the 1930s. 17 pages, 41 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.
  $119
 

11805. RENAISSANCE PAINTINGS OF THE LAST JUDGMENT.

Compares Giotto's medieval version of the Last Judgment to Da Vinci and other artists version. Examines specific ways the body was depicted to describe damnation and purity. A trend from realism to humanism is observed. 12 pages, 12 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

11804. PIET MONDRIAN AND JACKSON POLLOCK.

Compares the tenets of Mondrian's Neo-Plasticism with the various phases of Pollock's artistic development. Conflicts and similarities between Mondrian's aesthetic theories and those of a variety of Abstract Expressionists are explored. Representative paintings are discussed. 8 pages, 24 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.
  $56
 

11803. ART MUSEUMS: FUNCTION AND FUTURE.

Explores and analyzes the function of public museums, with a concentration on the art museum, particularly the art museum in the United States. Includes a close focus on the art museum's central function of exhibition, tracing how this function has expanded, contracted and otherwise changed over the past century. 16 pages, 28 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.
  $112
 

11802. ISLAMIC CALLIGRAPHY AT ALHAMBRA AND TOPKAPI SARAI.

Examines the principles, methods, and appearance of Islamic calligraphy. Frequent icons in Islamic calligraphy are explored. Includes the history of the building of the Alhambra and Topkapi Sarai temples. 12 pages, 41 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.
  $84
 

11640. THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE RENAISSANCE IN ITALY.

Knowledgeable essay on Renaissance architecture, organized around the concept of the supposed return to classical Roman values which animated the artists and critics of the time. Covers Alberti, Brunelleschi, Michaelangelo and others. 12p., Notes in Text, 10b.
  $84
 

11503. MICHELANGELO'S SCULPTURE.

Smooth, cultured review of the Italian Renaissance and Michelangelo's career as a sculptor. Includes the background, Michelangelo's role in creating his own legend, the tension between classicism and modernity in Renaissance thought and art. Michelangelo's apprenticeship with Ghirlandaio and his association with Lorenzo de Medici, his focus on the male nude, and two great accomplishments, the Pieta and David. 11 pages, 29 footnotes in text, 8 bibliographic sources.
  $77
 

11502. POST-MODERNIST ART.

Discussion of the views of three postmodernist critics. One defines post-modernist art by the "absence of temporality," while others "argue that increased temporality" is the post-modernist essence; one says that post-modernist art has two features, "pastiche and schizophrenia," while another announces, "Every object, if it is art, is charged with the rush of time even though it is static." 9 pages, 23 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

11352. "VIEW" PAINTERS OF VENICE IN THE 18TH CENTURY.

Overview of the "view" or vedutisti painters of Venice, as exemplified by Canaletto and Guardi. Describes the focus of the paintings and the place of the "view" painters within the genre of landscape painters, considers the juxtaposition between the "splendors of Venice" represented in these works versus that city's concurrent political and economic decline, and discusses the role of foreign tourists as patrons for these painters. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 2,806 words.
  $77
 

11351. RESTORATION OF THE SISTINE CHAPEL.

Discusses the controversies surrounding the recent restoration of Michelangelo's frescoed ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Profiles major issues in the controversy: threat of over-cleaning, motivations behind the project, difficulty of interpretation based on limited contemporary records. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

11350. LIFE AND WORKS OF AMERICAN PAINTER FREDERICK CHILDE HASSAM.

Insightful brief biography of the 19th century American Impressionist. Provides background on Hassam's training and early life, discusses the influence of French Impressionists on his work, and examines Hassam's view towards his own work, especially his insistence that he was not an impressionist. Includes analysis of several major works. 9 pages, 20 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

11313. GAUGUIN'S WHERE DO WE COME FROM? WHAT ARE WE? WHERE ARE WE GOING?

Presents a brief hisory of Gauguin's move to Tahiti and his illness. Discusses the painting in terms of historical influences, composition, and color. Gauguin's own comments and other possible interpretations are considered. 6 pages, 20 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.
  $42
 

11163. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN CAIRO (641 THROUGH MIDDLE AGES).

From the founding of the city by Arab invaders up to the Ottoman Empire. History of the four cities that were the basis for modern Cairo and of public architecture built by the foreign conquerors living in relative isolation among the indigenous population. Discusses the nature of an "Islamic" city as an expression of Islamic community and as characterized by related styles of architecture found in cities of North Africa and the Middle East. 19 pages, 52 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.
  $133
 

11162. GREENOUGH'S STATUE OF BEN FRANKLIN.

Critique of Richard Greenough's statue of Ben Franklin at Boston City Hall- the theme and content of this work of public art from 1885 are analyzed. 9 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.
  $63
 

11161. "TWO CHILDREN ARE THREATENED BY A NIGHTINGALE" BY MAX ERNST.

Close analysis of style and imagery in Ernst's Surrealist painting. Describes the painting/collage format in detail and analyzes its relation to the classical modes of painting against which it is a reaction. 5 pages, 3 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
  $35
 
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